The Canadian Civil War was a major armed conflict in North America during the latter half of the 1990's. It was the result of the 1995-1996 Canadian Constitutional Crisis brought on by the disputed results of the 1995 Independence Referendum. The Canadian Government faced a major insurgency by the Republic Of Quebec and the "Republican Alliance" consisting of the Republic Of Cascadia and the Aboriginal Confederacy.
After the victory of the "Yes" side in the 1995 Independence Referendum, Quebec Premier Lucien Bouchard demanded independence from the government in Ottawa. Then Prime Minister Jean Chrétien however refused to allow Quebec to secede, declaring it unconstitutional. This resulted in the Bloc Québécois pulling its support from Chrétien's governing Liberal party and causing the Government to fall.
The highly controversial winter election campaign of 1996 resulted in the 1995-1996 constitutional crisis. The election and the constitutional negotiations afterwards were marred by violent protests and political instability. The government's excessive pandering to Quebec during this time led to increased intolerance in many of the Western provinces towards Ottawa.
Preston Manning, leader of the western-based Reform party, gained the alliance of the Premiers of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, should they need to secede also.
On June 30th, 1996, PM Jean Charest broke off negotiations with Bouchard's government and declared a state of martial law in the province of Quebec. Many in the army disputed this order and mutinied. The pro-Quebec military forces attempted a coup d'état against Charest's government on July 1st
The failed July Coup caused Quebec to immediately secede, and the western provinces, dubbed "Cascadia", to secede the following day. In addition, the Indian First Nations of Canada formed a coalition, the "Aboriginal Confederacy", in the event the government cracked down on theme also.
PM Jean Charest decided to use military force to crush the uprising by theses three factions, sparking the 3 year Canadian Civil War. He also invoked Article 5 of the North Atlantic Charter, prompting a United States intervention in the growing civil war.
Cascadia and the Aboriginal Confederacy formed the "Republican Alliance" to oppose the government. Quebec, while not part of this alliance, was informally allied to them during the course of this conflict.
The Civil War saw the end of Canadian Confederation, with only a small de facto Canadian rump state remaining in the former areas on Ontario, Manitoba and the Northwest Territories.