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Canada (Scotland says "Yes")

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Canada
Timeline: Scotland says "Yes"
OTL equivalent: Canada, excluding Quebec
Flag of Canada.svg Coat of arms of Canada rendition.svg
Motto: 
"A Mari Usque Ad Mare"
Anthem: 
"O Canada"
Royal anthem: 
"God save the Queen"
Canadamapwihtoutquebec.png
CapitalOttawa
Largest city Toronto
Official languages English, French
Ethnic groups  76.7% White

14.2% Asian 4.3% Aboriginal 2.9% Black 1.2% Latin American 0.5% multiracial

0.3% other
Demonym Canadian
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General David Johnston
 -  Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
 -  Chief-Justice Beverley McLachlin
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Commons
Establishment from the United Kingdom
 -  Confederation July 1, 1867 
 -  Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931 
 -  Patriation April 17, 1982 
Area
 -  Total 8,442,614 km2 
3,259,711 sq mi 
Population
 -  2016 census 27,694,800 
Currency Canadian Dollar ($)
Drives on the right
Calling code + 1
Canada is a sovereign nation located in North America. It has nine provinces and three territories, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific through the Arctic Ocean, though Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are separated from the contiguous six provinces and three territories by the newly independent Quebec. As well as Quebec, Canada is bordered on the South by the United States, which is the worlds. Canada is the third largest country in the world by total area, and it has the world's longest border (with the US). Much of Canada is sparsely populated, with the majority of its land territory dominated by forest, tundra and the Rocky Mountains.

History

Ancient

Archaeological studies and genetic analyses indicate that there has been a human presence in the north of the Yukon region from 13,000-12,000 BC, and in southern Ontario from 7500 BC, most probably entering Canada through the Bering land bridge. The Paleo-Indian archaeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada.

European contact and colonization

At the time of the first European settlements, the aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 200,000 and two million.

The first known European colonisation attempt began around 1000 AD when Norsemen briefly settled in Newfoundland. However, it was to be another 500 years until Italian seafarer John Cabot explored and claimed Canada's Atlantic coast in the name of Henry VII of England.

Over the next couple of hundred years, colonisation efforts of varying degrees of success were established in Canada, mainly by British and French, but also some whaling and fishing outposts by the Basque and Portuguese mariners.

By 1700 most of colonized Canada was controlled by France and England, until various wars placed French possessions in British hands.

20th Century

For the following two and a half centuries Britain controlled Canada's foreign affairs, which meant in the 20th Century Canada was automatically brought into the first World War. However, after conscription was heavily resisted, particularly by French-speaking Quebecans, many were deeply alienated. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently from Britain, in the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.

However, the Great Depression during the early 1930's saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the country, leading to many elements of a welfare state, and in 1939 George VI declared Canada at war with Germany, seven days after Britain. This greatly delayed Canada's independence and Newfoundland relinquished responsible government in 1934 to become a Crown Colony.

The first Canadian Military units arrived in the UK in December 1939, with over a million Canadians serving in the Second World War in total, with 42,000 killed and a further 55,000 wounded. These troops played many important roles in the key battle of the war, including the failed Dieppe Raid, invasion of Italy, Normandy Landings, the Battle of Normandy and the Battle of Scheldt. Canada also hosted the Dutch Monarchy when it was occupied by Germany, and has been credited greatly by the Netherlands for its contributions to the Dutch Liberation. Indeed, despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, the Canadian economy boomed during the war, producing military materials for the allies.

In 1949, after two bitter referenda, Newfoundland voted to join Canada as a Province. Canada's economy continued to grow, and with successive Liberal governments, a new Canadian identity was created, with the Maple Leaf Flag adopted in 1965 and official bilingualism of English and French between 1965 and 1969. However, for the rest of the Century, Quebecan nationalism continued to be an issue.

Modern Times

Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but did not participate in the US-lead Invasion of Iraq in 2003. In 2009 Canada's economy was greatly affected by the global Great Recession, but has largely recovered. In 2011 Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan civil war, and more recently has become involved in battle ISIL in Iraq.

Quebecois Independence

On the anniversary of the result of the Scottish Independence Referendum,19th September 2015  the Canadian Government announced plans for a referendum of Quebecan independence, in response to much lobbying. On the 24th November the vote was held, with results on the 22nd December showing a vast majority voting in favour of independence.

Geography and Climate

Canada is the largest state in North America, sharing borders with both the contiguous United States and Alaska, as well as Quebec, which separates parts of Canada. While it does not share any land borders with it, via sea it borders Greenland to the Northeast. It stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean to the west, with the Arctic Ocean to the north.

Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Canada has the longest coastline in the world, and the longest border, with the United States. Canada consists of eight distinct forest region, including much arboreal forest on the Canadian Shield. It also has around 31,000 large lakes, more than any other country, and contains many fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains.

Canada is quite geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, including Mount Meager, Mount Garibalder, Mount Cayley and the Mount Edziza complex, amongst others. Average winter and summer high temperatures vary from region to region, but overall Winters are harsh, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces with temperatures between -15 °C and -40 °C with wind chills, while in summer, temperatures can reach 30 °C, sometimes even exceeding 40 °C.

Government and Politics

Canada is a parliamentary government, lead by a constitution monarchy: the current sovereign in Queen Elizabeth II, who is also monarch of 17 other Commonwealth countries, as well as each of Canada's ten provinces. As such, the Queen's representative, the Governor-General of Canada carries out most of the royal duties of Canada. Indeed, the usage of Crown powers are directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown who are responsible to the elected House of Commons, chosen and headed by the Prime Minister, currently Justin Trudeau, who is the head of government.

Foreign Relations and Military

Canada is a powerful nation, as it pursues multilateral solutions. Canada's foreign policy is based on peacekeeping and security, carried out through coalitions and international organisations. Indeed, alongside its membership of NATO, Canada was a founding member of the United Nations , and has membership of the World Trade Organisation, G20, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, amongst others.

Canada aso has close links to both the United States and United Kingdom, through location and historic culture, respectively. Canada, as a British Dominion, thought alongside Britain in many wars, significantly the World Wars. In more contemporary times, Canada has proposed many UN resolutions between nations, and has served in over 50 peacekeeping missions, including every single peacekeeping operations until 1989, and many other since.

Provinces and Territories

Canadianprovincesssy

Provinces and Territories of Canada, as well as the independent Quebec.

Canada is a federation composed of nine provinces and three territories, which in turn are grouped into the four (main) regions of Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada and Northern Canada. Provinces have more autonomy than territories, particularly over areas such as healthcare, education and welfare; territories collect more revenue than the federal government, in an unique federal structure.

After the Independence of Quebec, the provinces to the West of Quebec have become known as Contiguous Canada, in a similar vane to the mainland US States (which includes Alaska and Hawaii), and the ones to the East are known as the Eastern Provinces.

Economy

Canada has the world's eleventh-largest economy in 2015, with a nominal GDP of approximately US$1.79 trillion. It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and G8, and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly mixed globalised economy, deeply integrated with the United States'.

Canada's largest export is Oil, having 13% of the world's oil reserves, and the third-largest share, after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. It is also one of the world's largest agricultural exporters. The nation is also a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, inckle, aluminium, steel, iron oro, coking coal and lead, mainly in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult.

Demographics

Canada has a total population of 27,694,800, mainly in the Southern areas. Canada has had the fastest growth rate of any G8 nations, and accepts many refugees.

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