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The Kingdom of Canada (French: Rouyame du Canada, Gáidhlig: Rìoghachd Canada, Icelandic: Konungsríki Kanada) is a federal parliamentary monarchy located in North America. The Kingdom of Canada is the oldest member of the Imperial Federation, having existed since 1867 (when Confederation was agreed upon by the British government) as well as the largest member and the second most populated one (after the United Kingdom). Its common border with the United States is the longest uninterrupted land border between two nations in Earth. Canada only has two land borders, with Newfoundland to its east and to the US to its west and south. Across the Arctic from the north are the Republic of Greenland and the Eurasian Union.
Canada is a developed nation and one of the wealthiest in rankings both in the Imperial Federation and the world, with an extremely high GDP per capita and a high level of human development. The Canadian rankings of education, healthcare, transparency, liberty, quality of life and others are amongst the highest on Earth, and it is therefore a destination for many immigrants, most notably from former states under the post-Boulangist/American sphere of influence during the Cold War, such as China, the Philippines, the DPRC and Brasil, as well as the United States itself.
The Canadian government also has one of the largest military contingents in the world, with an Imperial Federation taskforce and its descendants composing nearly a tenth of the immigrant population, taking care of the extremely long and quite strongly militarised border between the United States and Canada. Relations between the two countries have been tense throughout the XXth Century, and remain so, even after the democratisation of the southern state.
Canada is arranged along a federal framework, with eleven provinces with devolved jurisdiction and legislatures, as well as with independent state constitutions, economic systems and party systems. These eleven provinces are Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton, New Iceland, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Furthermore, less devolved but still very autonomous are the territories of Yukon and Rupertsland/Nunavut, with significantly smaller populations.
Canada acts as a member of the Imperial Federation and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Victoria II of the United Kingdom titled Queen of Canada. Its advanced economy is the third largest in the Americas by GDP (after Brazil and the United States) and the twelfth largest in the world (although as part of the IF, this is a dubious statement). At 64 million people, Canada is the fourth most populated state in the Americas.
Canada has a total population of 64,441,145, with a massive divide in density between the extremely sparse north of the country and the extremely densely populated south.
The Canadian census recognises eight major "native cultural groups" for the Canadian state, which are the eight nations that compose the majority or the historical majority in one of the provinces. The Canadian system does this as part of the census, recognising the eight nations as independent ethnic groups while lumping immigrant ethnic groups into one of three categories; White, Asian, and Other - immigrant groups compose 20% of the population, while the 80% is composed of one of eight major ethnicities. The demographics of Canadian ethnic groups, as recorded in the 2011 census, are:
- Anglo-Canadians - 26,776,329 people, or 41.6% of the population,
- Franco-Canadians - 13,267,709 people, 20.6%,
- First Nations (including both American and Canadian-descent) - 3,946,054, 6.1%
- Gaelic Canadians - 3,865,103, 6%,
- Icelandic Canadians - 1,126,154, 1.7%
- Métis - 676,482, 1%
- Inuit - 248,694, 0.4%
- Other - 14,534,620, 22.6%, of which:
- Whites - 5,862,147, 9.1%,
- Asians - 7,357,473, 11.4%,
- Other - 1,315,000, 2.0%.