The federal government consist of both an elected senate and and elected chamber of representatives. The party (or coalition) with a majority of seats in the chamber of representatives forms the executive. The federal government's power is largely limited to matters of foreign policies and the military with the remainder being held by the Council of Confederation composed of all the provincial premiers.
Canada, in its modern form, was created in 1867 out of the merger of 4 British colonies. It later acquired further land until it reached 10 provinces and 2 territories.
Folowing the separation of Quebec after the 1995 referendum, it entered a period of uncertainty. A further 2 provinces (Alberta and British-Columbia) separated which forced the government to reorganised itself in a more decentralised fashion, giving more powers to the provinces.
To coordonate better, a new "Council of the Confederation" was created in 2003 which is composed of the premier of all the provinces.
The Confederation is composed of the following provinces: