Canada was originally a British colony. After a successsful revolution from 1780-1784, it became the independent Republic of Canada. As the 19th century continued, Canada expanded west and bought Alaska.
BeginningCanada was colonized by the British and French. After the French and Indian War, Britain took control of New France, and Quebec was created out of it. The Quebec Act of 1774 was not passed, so French culture was not allowed in Quebec. As revolutionary fervor spread throughout Quebec, the British placed troops in major cities and forced people to take care of them. This angered many Quebecois, and fueled the Canadian Revolutionary War.
In 1775, the American Revolutionary War broke out, which inspired the Quebecois to have a revolution of their own. The Americans invaded Quebec, and with the help of the 1st Canadian Regiment under James Livingston, successfully conquered it. This inspired many more people to join the revolution, so to stop this the British placed soldiers in every village, town, and city. This made the people mad, and soon many more joined the revolution. The revolution soon spread to Ontario and other places.After defeating the British in several battles, the French pledged their support for the Canadians. The French and Canadians raided several cities before attacking Thunder Bay. While the French blockaded it, the Canadians made their attack. The British their surrendered, making Canada victorious in the war. In 1784, a treaty was signed, officially giving Canada their independence.
After the war, the United States President George Washington decided to meet Canadian Prime Minister James Livingston at Canada's capital, Ottowa. The meeting went well, and relationships opened up between Canada and the United States. Trade between the two nations helped the ecomies of both nations grow. However, all was not well within Canada.
English Canadians and French Canadians were tearing at each other's throats. The French felt that the English had too much power because Ottowa and Toronto, major Canadian cities, were in English dominated lands, and most of the government officials were English. The English were mad because James Livingston supported the French more than the British. The French Revolutionary Wars made this worse, because both groups supported different groups. Militia groups, such as the French Cadets, were created and fought with others. Canada was tearing apart, and Livingston was struggling to keep it together.In 1807, Britain invaded Canada for resources it needed for the fight against France in the Napoleonic Wars. The British soldiers went deeper and deeper into Canada, but the invasion helped Canada because the common enemy, Great Britain, made both sides work together to defeat it. The Canadians and Americans defeated the British at the Battle of Montreal, forcing them to retreat. The British were forced off the continent and to Iceland, where an American-Canadian-French attack defeated the Royal Navy. Canada also gained Iceland.
War, Expansion, and IndustrializationThe first war after the British Invasion of Canada was the Americas War. Canadian regiments weren't as involved as the Americans and Mexicans, but were in a few battles such as the Battle of El Porvenir. After returning home, veterans found that life in the city was crowded because of the large amount of immigration. This made many people go west, where there was free land for the taking. Many Canadians decided to live in Winnipeg, while others decided to head further west. In 1856, when a railroad was built in western Canada, small settlements soon grew into large communities, such as Saskatoon. The Canadians soon found themselves in a conflict with local Native Americans, so the Canadian Western Guard was created. After small battles and skirmishes, the Native Americans decided to move to Winnipeg, where they were welcomed.
In 1857, Canada entered the American Civil War on the side of the United States. The Canadians fought in many battles, including the Battle of New Orleans and numerous battles in the Texas Campaign. The war ended in 1859 with the Confederates defeated and the US and Canada victorious.In the 1870s, Canada underwent an industrialization. Rivers such as the St. Lawrence and Assiniboine became packed with trading. Factories opened up, and many new immigrants to Canada found themselves working in these. Railroads and rivers allowed for the transport of goods from the west to east, but that was made easier with the opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The railway, which began construction in 1878, was followed by Prime Minister McDonald's successor and was completed in 1883. The amount of goods coming from the west into the east soon became larger.