Alternate History

Canada (CWIC)

39,877pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Add New Page Talk0
As much as possible, this article will abide by the "Don't Reproduce Wikipedia" policy. Other than the most basic and necessary information, it should only include information about Canada which is different from OTL as a result of the admission of the first West Indian provinces in 1961.
Timeline: CWIC

OTL equivalent: Canada; British West Indies
Flag of Canada
Flag of Canada
Global location map CWIC
Location of Canada (red)

A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin)
("From Sea to Sea")

Anthem "O Canada"
Capital Ottawa (executive & legislative)
Hamilton (judicial)
Largest city Toronto
English and French
  others Chipewyan, Cree, Garifuna, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, Mopan Maya, North Slavey, Q'eqchi' Maya, South Slavey, Tłįchǫ, Yucatec Maya
Ethnic Group White, Aboriginal, Black, Asian
Demonym Canadian, Canadien
Government Constitutional monarchy
  legislature Parliament of Canada
Monarch Elizabeth II
  Royal House: Windsor
Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Area 10,256,500 km²
Population 40,105,688 
Established 1867
Independence from the United Kingdom
  recognized 1931
Currency Canadian Dollar
Time Zone UTC -3.5 to -8
  summer UTC -2.5 to -7
Internet TLD .ca
Calling Code +1

Canada is a transcontinental country in the Americas consisting of sixteen provinces, four territories and a federal district. Over 97% of Canada's 10.25 million sq km lies in northern North America, forming a region officially referred to as "Canada proper," which extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Along with a large and diverse group of Atlantic and Caribbean islands, two coastal provinces in Central and South America, bordering Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Suriname and Venezuela, form the remaining 2.5% of the country's territory, giving Canada a southernmost point of 01°11'N. Holding more surface water — almost 900,000 sq km — than any other state, Canada is the world's second-largest country by both land and total area. Its land border with the United States forms the longest bi-national boundary on Earth.

The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonies were established on the region's Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost North American territories until left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly comprises Canada proper today. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, three colonies joined to form the autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the new self-governing Dominion. In 1948, the Dominion of Newfoundland voted to join the Canadian Confederation, sparking a second period of expansion as Canada incorporated other former British colonies in the Americas. In 1931, Britain granted Canada near total independence with the Statute of Westminster; full sovereignty was attained when the Canada Act of 1982 severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, Queen Elizabeth II being the current head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries, with a population of approximately 40 million as of 2015. Its advanced economy is one of the largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

Canada is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally, and the eighth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, and is furthermore part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings, including NATO, the G8, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the European Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.



See main articles: History of Canada, History of the Caribbean

British American irredentism

The West Indies Federation

Subsequent Confederation




Extreme points

With its northernmost point less than seven degrees south of the pole and its southernmost less than two degrees from the equator, Canada's territory spans almost the entire length of the northern hemisphere.

  • Northernmost: Flag of Nunavut Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut
  • Southernmost: Flag of Guyana Rainforest on the Brazilian border, Guyana
  • Easternmost: Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador Cape Spear, Newfoundland
  • Westernmost: Flag of Yukon Boundary Peak 187, Yukon
Canada proper:
  • Northernmost: Flag of Nunavut Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut
  • Southernmost: Flag of Ontario Middle Island, Lake Erie, Ontario
  • Easternmost: Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador Cape Spear, Newfoundland
  • Westernmost: Flag of Yukon Boundary Peak 187, Yukon
Canada proper (non-insular):
  • Northernmost: Flag of Nunavut Zenith Point, Nunavut
  • Southernmost: Flag of Ontario Point Peele, Ontario
  • Easternmost: Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador Cape Saint Charles, Labrador
  • Westernmost: Flag of Yukon Boundary Peak 187, Yukon
Canadian Indies:
  • Northernmost: Flag of Bermuda Saint Catherine's Point, Saint George's Island, Bermuda
  • Southernmost: Flag of Guyana Rainforest on the Brazilian border, Guyana
  • Easternmost: Flag of Guyana Rainforest on the Brazilian—Surinamese border, Guyana
  • Westernmost: Flag of Belize (CWIC) Sarstoon River at the Guatemalan border, Belize

Government and politics

The Crown

See main article: Monarchy of Canada


The so-called Realm of Canada includes both Canada itself and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a royal possession in the English Channel transferred from the British Crown to the Canadian on January 1st, 1974. On the same date, the Bahamas joined Canada as a province, which would have marked the end of British sovereignty in the Caribbean had the Turks and Caicos Islands not seceded from the Canadian Confederation to regain their former status as an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. This has been described as an "exchange" for Guernsey and the defining moment of the "Atlantic Commonwealth". Referenda in both of the exchanged territories had approved these changes in status in early 1973. Guernsey sought to avoid questions as to the legality of its feudal government under European law while the Turks and Caicos were dissatisfied with their seemingly insignificant status within Jamaica Province.

Neither a part of Canada nor an unincorporated territory, Guernsey operates as a sovereign state in its own right, although its defence is legally the responsibility of Canada and the United Kingdom, and its legal system and economic policy are heavily influenced by these two Commonwealth realms. Internationally, the Bailiwick is recognised as a "territory for which Canada and the United Kingdom are responsible."

In practice, little has changed in Guernsey since its transferal to the Crown of Canada, and its relationship to the United Kingdom remains as close as that of the other dependency in the Channel, the Bailiwick of Jersey. However, the shared sovereignty of Canada and Guernsey has been used to justify Canada's accession to the European Free Trade Association and to excuse Guernsey's failure to comply with certain democracy requirements of the European Convention on Human Rights, as Canada is not a member of the Concert of Europe and therefore not party to the Convention.


The Commons

The Senate

The Cabinet


See main article: Law of Canada

Foreign relations


International organizations


CWIC Provinces Territories

The provinces and territories of Canada showing accurate distances and geographic locations. The scale is unified, though the areas of Bermuda some smaller West Indian islands are exaggerated for visibility.
Of the Caribbean islands, the Bahamas and Windward Province are shown in maroon; the Leeward Territory is orange; Jamaica Province is green; and Trinidad Province is blue.


Flag Province Abb. Capital Area (km²) Population Density Official languages Confederation
Flag of Alberta Alberta AB Edmonton 0 661 848 03 645 257 005.51 English 1905 10 01
Flag of the Bahamas Bahamas BA Nassau 0 013 878 00 379 000 027.31 English 1974 01 01
Flag of Belize (CWIC) Belize BE Belmopan 0 022 966 00 368 000 016.02 English, Garifuna, Mopan Maya, Q'eqchi' Maya, Yucatec Maya 1967 07 01
Flag of British Columbia British Columbia BC Victoria 0 944 735 04 400 057 004.66 English 1871 07 20
Flag of Guyana Guyana GY Georgetown 0 214 970 00 747 000 003.47 English 1977 04 01
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica Province JA Kingston 0 011 255 02 788 000 247.71 English 1961 11 30
Flag of Manitoba Manitoba MB Winnipeg 0 647 797 01 208 268 001.87 English 1870 07 15
Flag of New Brunswick New Brunswick NB Fredericton 0 072 908 00 751 171 010.30 English, French 1867 07 01
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador NL St John's[1] 0 405 212 00 514 536 001.27 English 1949 03 31
Flag of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia NS Halifax 0 055 248 00 921 727 016.67 English 1867 07 01
Flag of Ontario Ontario ON Toronto 1 076 395 12 851 821 011.94 English 1867 07 01
Flag of Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island PE Charlottetown 0 005 660 00 140 204 024.77 English 1873 07 01
Flag of Quebec Quebec QC Quebec City 1 542 056 07 903 001 005.12 French 1867 07 01
Flag of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan SK Regina 0 651 036 01 033 381 001.59 English 1905 10 01
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad Province TR Port-of-Spain 0 005 131 01 357 000 264.47 English 1961 11 30
Windward Province WW Bridgetown 0 001 780 00 669 000 375.84 English 1967 07 01
  1. The capitals of the Leeward Territory and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador share a name. Where ambiguity would arise, most commonly when the cities are used as metonyms for the provincial and territorial governments they house, the most common practice is to refer to Leeward's government as "Antigua," the island on which its capital is located.


Flag Territory Abb. Capital Area (km²) Population Density Official languages Confederation
Flag of Bermuda Federal District of Bermuda DB Hamilton 0 000 053 065 000 1 226.42 English, French 1974 07 01
Leeward Territory LW St. John's[1] 0 001 797 256 000 0 142.46 English, French, Garifuna 1967 07 01
Flag of the Northwest Territories Northwest Territories NT Yellowknife 1 346 106 041 462 0 000.03 English, French, Chipewyan, Cree, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, Tłįchǫ 1870 07 15
Flag of Nunavut Nunavut NU Iqaluit 2 093 190 031 906 0 000.02 English, French, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut 1999 04 01
Flag of Yukon Yukon Territory YT Whitehorse 0 482 443 033 897 0 000.07 English, French 1898 06 13
  1. The capitals of the Leeward Territory and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador share a name. Where ambiguity would arise, most commonly when the cities are used as metonyms for the provincial and territorial governments they house, the most common practice is to refer to Leeward's government as "Antigua," the island on which its capital is located.

Proposed redistricting

Division of the West Indian islands into provinces has proved troublesome. Even within the Caribbean, there are some pressure groups advocating distinct provincial status for each major island in the Lesser Antilles (potentially up to ten provinces or territories where currently there are only two), while others seek a union between Windward Province and the Leeward Territory which might give the united province greater sway in national affairs. Few, however, have suggested a reunification of Windward and Leeward into Trinidad Province, which included the entire Canadian Antilles from 1961 until 1967. The Cayman Islands, a perpetual attachment to Jamaica Province, have frequently sought a change in status, with some citizens favouring territorial status and others seeking union with Belize. At the provincial level, the Caymans would hold a far more significant position within less-populous Belize than they do within Jamaica — but federally, Belize is allocated only four Parliamentary seats to Jamaica's 24, so the likelihood of the Caymans continuing to form a single Parliamentary constituency under Belmopan is slim. Even Belize is not entirely secure in its status, with many advocating its union with Jamaica Province.


Proposed additions to the Confederation

Official "Confederation policy" states that the Government of Canada shall never pursue the annexation of any foreign state or territory without a mandate from that territory's citizenry and an invitation from its government, which in turn must be democratically elected. Furthermore no territory may be annexed without Parliamentary approval of a government report on the predicted benefits the annexation will yield both for Canada and for the annexed territory.

Parliament is bound by convention to give "serious consideration and measured debate" to any proposal of annexation by a non-sovereign territory in the Caribbean region, ie. the Turks and Caicos Islands and the dependencies held by France, the Netherlands and the United States. None of these territories have ever sought union with Canada. The Turks and Caicos were a part of Jamaica Province for thirteen years until returning to the United Kingdom as an overseas territory in 1974, and currently still elect a non-voting delegate to the Canadian House of Commons. Should they rejoin the Confederation, they would likely become a part of Bahamas Province rather than return to the more distant Jamaica.

French Canadian political groups have frequently mentioned Haiti as a potential future province. Such an annexation would swell the numbers of Canada's Francophone population, but would also pose a significant financial problem to the federal government due to Haiti's far lower levels of development than any current Canadian province.

Senatorial regions

Since the first four provinces joined the Confederation in 1867, Canada has been a country defined by regionalism. The Canadian Senate was established with this regionalism in mind, as a chamber of "sober second thought" where regional interests should be given equal weight regardless of their populations — as opposed to the United States Senate, which grants equal representation to individual states, rather than regions. For senatorial purposes, the country is divided along provincial and territorial boundaries into three regions, each of which is allocated 24 seats. In addition, Ontario and Quebec, the two largest provinces, are regions in their own right and also receive 24 Senators each. Uniquely, Quebec's Senators are assigned to geographic districts, a measure first introduced to ensure roughly proportional representation for the province's anglophone and francophone communities. The ten remaining seats are distributed according to population among the five provinces and territories not included in any region.

Region Province or Territory Senators Regional Total Federal Total
Maritime Canada New Brunswick 10 24 130
Nova Scotia 10
Prince Edward Island 4
Ontario 24
Quebec 24
Western Canada Alberta 6 24
British Columbia 6
Manitoba 6
Saskatchewan 6
West Indies Bahamas 2 24
Belize 2
Guyana 2
Jamaica Province 7
Leeward Territory 2
Trinidad Province 7
Windward Province 2
Federal District of Bermuda 1 10
Newfoundland and Labrador 6
Northwest Territories 1
Nunavut 1
Yukon Territory 1

Sporting and cultural "nations"


Science and technology




Also on Fandom

Random Wiki