IntroductionThe Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة) was a nation state existing since 929 from the previous Emirate. Its first Caliph was Abd-ar-Rahman III who led the Emirate before re-establishing the Umayyad Dynasty that was removed by the Abbasids.
It had a monopoly of the colonisation of Ard Marjhoola during the 10th century after its first colony in 933. Alongside this, It was able to conquer the Kingdoms of León and Castile in the north, and later parts of north Africa. The Taifa of Zaragoza is the only independent nation left in the Iberian peninsula and is a tributary to Córdoba. Further North includes the Kingdom of France which it managed to build good relations with. France would become Córdoba's main Exporter despite religious and cultural differences, and the two nations inevitably started to influence each other.
Under Hisham II, the Córdobian Civil war led to the union of Moors and Berbers. Once most of the Berber tribes were aligned with Córdoba, it rivalled the size of the Abbasids, and formed a land border between Córdoba and the Fatimid Caliphate. This border would lead to a number of troubles, including the Córdoba-Fatimid Border War.
List of Caliphs
Abd-ar-Rahman III (929 - 961) Took advantage of the discovery of Ard Marjhoola for his own ends, conquers Leon and Castille, helps Berbers in north Africa
Al-Hakam II (961 - 976) Led greater expansion into Ard Marjhoola, consolidated land gains of his father
Hisham II (976 - 1013) Born a lot earlier than in OTL, was able to start leading the country straight away. Made gains further up in Navarre and Barcelona, while joining up with Berbers in north Africa
Hisham III (1013 - 1037) Ruled at a time in which the power of Caliph was receeding, he comes into direct conflict with the Fatimid Caliphate
Muhammad II (1037 - ) First elected Caliph of the Council of Twelve. Caused many divisions between Moors and Berbers