The Caliphate Wars (also known as "The Muslem Land Grab" in Christian Europe) were a series of conflicts between three rival Muslim nation states representing themselves as Caliphates; Córdoba, The Fatimids and The Abbasids. It posed a problem as traditional Islamic thought only allowed for one to rightfully exist at any one time, and until this point it looked as if the issue was relatively minor to those concerned.
The starting period for this time frame was the end of the Córdobian Civil War in 1006. In order to retain the throne, Hisham II had formed a political union with Berber tribes in exchange for their help in the war. This led to the Chancellor's position (effectively second in command) being given to the Berbers, a position while not led by hereditary ties, remained a ethnic based seat of power. Added on with Córdoba's monopoly at the time of Ard Marjhoola, the Fatimids and the Abbasids felt their power dwindling.
Events of the Caliphate Wars
The three forces looked towards each other with eyes of conquest. When one side was at a stalemate or lost a line of control; it looked to Europe and Africa for cheap conquests of resources to continue pan-Islamic conflicts. While the Fatimids and Abbasids were prevented from reaching Ard Marjhoola during the 10th century, they couldn't be prevented forever, leading to their own colonies on the continent and a continuation of warfare across the ocean. The Fatimids achieved this in 1024, producing their first colony: New Cairo.
Conflicts between the rival Caliphates often met at their land borders, such as the Córdoba-Fatimid Border War over land in North Africa and later the Fatimid-Abbasid Border Conflicts over the Holy cities and the Middle East. Naval engagements were also common, with Abbasid reaching port towns on the Mediterranean in the second half of the 11th century. Conflicts in Ard Marjhoola also started to reign, previously escaping the conflicts from the battle to the survive in the harsh new world.
Land gains by the Caliphates were not being watched without concern, however. The Papal States were the first to bring the issue into question. Pope Gregory VI was removed from power after having a disastrous political situation with the Fatimids that led them right up to the middle of the Italian Mainland, and openly raiding towns within the Papal States. His successor and previous rival in the last Papal elections, Pope Benedict VIII reversed Papal opinions on the Muslims invading up towards them, and called on allies to help defend their position.
This would be known as the First Crusade, with Benedict VIII relying mainly on the Normans who had built settlements between them in the decade beforehand. Benedict's call was also met by several volunteers from Europe, and the conflict formally started in 1017, lasting for four years. The end result being that the Fatimids were pushed back, but were still better off in terms of territory control than before Pope Gregory VI's reign. The Normans, still residing between the Papal States and the Fatimids, formed their own state and continued to protect the Papacy.
|Precursors||Discovery of Ard Marjhoola - Córdobian Civil War - Moorish-Berber Unionification|
|Inter-Caliphate Conflict||Córdoba-Fatimid Border War - Fatimid-Abbasid Border Conflicts|
|Caliphate invasions||Córdobian conquests of Christian lands - Fatimid conquests of Christian lands|
|Christian Reactions||First Crusade (Italy) - Second Crusade (Turkey) - Remnant War (Turkey)|