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The Republic of California (Spanish: República de California), colloquially known as California, is am independent nation located in Western North America. The nation is bordered by Columbia to the north, Louisiana to the east, and Mexico to the southeast. California's territory comprises mostly of deserts and mountains. The Colorado, the Rio Grande, and the Sacramento, and the San Joaquin are the four major rivers located within the nation.
Pre-Columbian California was inhabited by dozens of tribes spanning across the nation. The dominant peoples of California included the Apache, the Chumash, the Navajo, the Paiute, the Pomo, the Pueblos, the Shoshone, and the Ute. Spain would claim the territory as part of New Spain in the 16th century. California was sparsely colonized until the Gold Rush of the 1850s sparked a population boom in the area. The increased population and importance to the Spanish resulted in the establishment of California as a separate colony from New Spain during this time.
During the Spanish American Revolutions of the 1880s, California would fight for independence from Spain, which it achieves in the 1890s. The Republic of California would establish itself as a liberal democracy on par with the American Republics and the United Commonwealth. The new nation would continue to modernize itself during the 20th century, with the north being dominated by industry and the south dominated by agriculture. By the 1970s, California had become one of the wealthiest nations in the Western Hemisphere (on par with New Netherland) and emerged as a Great Power in its own right.
California has a diverse population. The majority of Californians (known as Californios in Spanish) are of European ancestry; with English, French, Germans, Italians, Scandinavians, and Spaniards being the largest. California contains the largest number of Asian peoples living in the New World; with Chinese, Filipinos Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese being the largest. Many Californians are also Mestizo, who are the decedents of Europeans and Native Americans.
The Republic of California is a unitary state comprised of a hundred or so departments, which are subdivided into municipalities. The Cortes Generales ("General Courts") is the legislature of California. The President is both the head of state and the head of government.