Caecilius Duilia Spartenos was a Greek General and eventually Dictator of the Roman Republic.

The early stages of Duilia Spartenos' life are unknown, which is attributed to later emperor Decimus Valerius Corvus's order to destroy the history of all foreigners who gained high office in the Roman Republic. Through the insults of his political opponents that have survived, it is assumed that Duilia Spartenos is Greco-Roman in origin; this is further evidenced by his name Spartenos. Duilia Spartenos is believed to have entered the Roman Legions at a young age; by the time of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus's death in 41 BC, he had advanced to the title of Legate, and was serving in Numidia.

When Pompey died, Duilia Spartenos immediately took his legion by sea to Rome. Taking advantage of the chaos, he installed his legion in the city and moved to restore order. To this purpose, he threatened the senate into making him their Dictator, a post he would hold until 24 BC.

The only known military campaign under Duilia Spartenos's reign was against king Pharnaces II of Pontus in 40 BC, who took the opportunity of the chaos after Pompey's death to launch a rebellion against his Roman overlords. Duilia Spartenos's lieutenant Lucius Julius Brutus in 36 BC, after an intensive four years campaign. Following this, Pontus became a Roman tribute state.

Duilia Spartenos was poisoned by his lieutenant Julius Brutus in 24 BC. Unlike when Pompey died, the transition from his death was rather more peaceful; the senate and the people welcomed Julius Brutus after a grand 17 year reign, which is considerably longer then that of most Roman Emperors.

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