After being defeated by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantines check their advance into western Anatolia and, upon the failure of the first Crusade, turn their attention to securing the northern Black Sea area and much of Russia instead.
Traits of the Timeline
- Much of northern Italy is united into the Duchy of Tuscany.
- The Byzantines eventually absorb Hungary.
- The Normans fail in their attempt to invade Albania.
- The Kievan Rus are dismantled after being defeated by the Khazars.
- The Norsemen of Novgorod form the Principality of Novgorod.
- The Byzantines recapture Sicily and much of Southern Italy.
- The Seljuk Turkish Empire breaks apart.
- The Fatmid Caliphate absorbs Syria.
- The First Crusade is comprised entirely of German armies and fails miserably.
- The Peasants' Crusade is sent to Armenia, instead of western Asia Minor, covering more ground.
- Georgia is conquered by the Byzantine Empire.
- The Republic of Venice fails to establish any footholds in the Balkans and are eventually wiped out.
- The Fourth Crusade is intercepted in Hungary.
- England never participates in the Crusades, instead developing an alliance with Egypt.
- Byzantine Empire
- The Khazars
- Principality of Novgorod
- County of Norman Sicily
- Papal States
- Kievan Rus
- Republic of Venice
- Duchy of Tuscany
- Republic of Genoa
- Seljuk Turks (degenerates into minor Turkish sultanates)
- Fatmid Caliphate
- Holy Roman Empire
- Kingdom of Denmark
- Kingdom of Poland
- Kingdom of Hungary
- Bulgarian Khanate
- Moorish Emirate
- Teutonic Order
- Iberian Confederation