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Resume of battles
Before Treaty of St. Denis
- Battle of Crete (820-821): Caliphate conquers Crete and other minor Mediterranean islands.
- Battles of Tripoli, Beirut and Acre (821-827): After successive defeats, Byzantines conquest Levant from Syria to Caesarea.
- Battle of Nicosia (823): Caliphate conquers Cyprus, where is installed a great fortification.
After Treaty of St. Denis
- Battle of Santorini (828): Crete and other Aegean islands return to Byzantine control.
- Battles of Egypt (829-830): Established Arab puppet state in Egypt: Egypt Caliphate. In 832, it's absorved again by Abbasid Caliphate.
Problematic frontiers in Near Orient, and the "Cyprus Question", bring to Holy Wars (841-1027).