Between 630 and 780, a lot of battles occurred between Byzantine Empire and caliphates. Accumulated hatred conduce to the war's declaration, after Arab invasion of Crete Island.

In year 828, after Treaty of St. Denis, the Frankish Empire accepts to help Byzantine Empire against the Arabs.

Resume of battles

Before Treaty of St. Denis

  • Battle of Crete (820-821): Caliphate conquers Crete and other minor Mediterranean islands.
  • Battles of Tripoli, Beirut and Acre (821-827): After successive defeats, Byzantines conquest Levant from Syria to Caesarea.
  • Battle of Nicosia (823): Caliphate conquers Cyprus, where is installed a great fortification.

After Treaty of St. Denis

  • Battle of Santorini (828): Crete and other Aegean islands return to Byzantine control.
  • Battles of Egypt (829-830):  Established Arab puppet state in Egypt: Egypt Caliphate. In 832, it's absorved again by Abbasid Caliphate.


Problematic frontiers in Near Orient, and the "Cyprus Question", bring to Holy Wars (841-1027).

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