Germany established forces in Rwanda in the late 19th century, establishing German East Africa. After the end of World War I, Germany ceded control of East Africa to Belgium. In 1924, this land, modern day Rwanda and Burundi, became a Belgian mandate territory. In 1948, the region was given the permission to form political parties, helping contribute to Burundi's independence.
In early 1959, Burundian king Mwami Mwambutsa IV requested Burundi's independence from Belgium and the dissolution of Rwanda-Urundi. In the following months, Burundian political parties began to campaign for independence, slightly influenced by the Rwandan Revolution and the accompanying instability which had occurred there. Burundi's first elections took place on September 8, and the UPRONA party took over 80% of the vote. Burundi claimed independence on 1 July 1962, legally changing its name from Rwanda-Urundi to Burundi.
Transition to Marxism
In 1964, the Simba Rebellion, part of the larger Congo Crisis, started. Communist countries aided communist rebels in the nation of Congo-Léopoldville; Katanga gained independence as a Marxist state. However, the Congo and allies were able to resist most of the Communist rebels. However, Simba Marxists were sent into Burundi after their withdrawal from the Congo; this time they were successful. A Marxist government was established in the nation with Simba leader Pierre Mulele in power, who still reigns over Burundi to this day. Burundi joined the Second Congo War, wanting to aid Rwanda. The nation didn't do much in the war, simply invading the eastern Congo.
The nation is relatively unstable, with poverty and instability being rampant. The nation is a dictatorship, and political strife is consistent with a failed coup occurring in 2015. The nation has consistently ended up in a genocidal state, and because of this emigration is common.
The nation is a Marxist-Leninist single party state with significant influences from Maoist China. President Mulele also has often started genocides in the nation, blamed in parts due to the Maoist influences. The nation is technically democratic, though the elections only have one candidate.