The following is a timeline of the British Isles in the Saint Muhammad timeline.

(NOTE: I consider the British Isles part of Europe, but since the POD impacts Britain more harshly than Europe, at least originally. The TL begins in 633, with the first intervention of the Middle East in Britain.)

  • 633: The Byzantines sign a treaty with the King of Gwynedd, Cadwallon, so to get troops in the seemingly inevitable Byzantine-Sassanid War of 635-650. Giving him a huge amount of gold and superior weaponry, Cadwallon ap Cadfan is able to defeat the Northumbrians in battle single-handedly despite being outnumbered. This event gains him the admiration of most Celtic tribes and even respect from the King of Mercia. Oswald of Bernicia dies in the battle and Deira and Bernicia lose their chance of unification.
  • 634: Cadwallon, not satisfied with his victory over the Bernicians, withdraws from Anglo-Saxon England and attacks Powys with his army, starting the first step of the First Pyrdish Unification, the War of Powys.
  • 636: Powys has been losing the War of Powys as they were surprised by Gwynedd's quick return from Bernicia and the attack, which came without an antecedent. The king of Powys surrenders to Cadwallon so to conserve his life.
  • 637: Cadwallon marries the King of Strathclyde's daughter and his daughter marries the king's firstborn son, cementing the union between the two Brythonic kingdoms.
  • 638: Cadwallon also keeps his alliance with the Byzantines sending his own troops to help the Byzantines with the Persians. Relying on Cumbric aid on this time, while he waits for his troops to return, he begins building Cadwallon's Dyke (Clawdd Cadwallon).
  • 640: Penda of Mercia attempts to attack Gwynedd while it is weak, not counting on Cadwallon's good leadership skills and the armies of Strathclyde attacking it from the north, plus further fortifications in Cadwallon's Dyke. The war goes into stalemate.
  • 642: The return of the first Welsh troops from the Middle East after the fall of parts of Persia helps Cadwallon break the stalemate in the Dyke.
  • 644: Mercia is defeated in several battles in its west and center.
  • 647: Mercia continues to be defeated.
  • 648: The king of Strathclyde and his son die mysteriously, leading to Cadwallon becoming King of Strathclyde. The two countries unify into the Kingdom of Pyrdain.
  • 649: Pyrdain begins unifying Wales by attacking the small principalities. Some of them surrender immediately, while others need bloody if short wars. The Welsh Consolidation, part of the Pyrdish Unification, starts. Cadwallon dies and his son Arthur succeeds him.
  • SM Cadwallon's War

    several regions of Mercia were handed over to the Pyrdish after Cadwallon's War

    652: Mercia is forced to hand up several regions (map pictured) in a peace treaty.
  • 655: Arthur ap Cadwallon continues under his father's footsteps for unifying the Celtic kingdoms, establishing a marriage with the King of Dumnonia (another Brythonic kingdom)'s daughter, as well as cementing an alliance with the Picts, also Brythonic.
  • 656: Deira and Bernicia go to war attempting to subdue the other and unify the northern Heptarchy. Talorgan son of Eanfrith, attempting to claim all of Scotia to himself (excepting Strathclyde, a part of Pyrdain) and using his dynastic claims to Bernicia (after his father) to do so, invades Bernicia from the north while its army is busy in the south. The Pyrdish send heavy aid towards Pictland.
  • 657: Pyrdain goes to war with Wessex together with Dumnonia so to connect both monarchies with a land-bridge. Although the Wessexian army is more competent than the Mercian one, the surprised and outnumbered army of Wessex is defeated in much of southwestern England, although southern England was still well-defended by Wessex's armies.
  • Flag of Scotland

    St.Andrew's flag is declared the symbol of the Picts.

    658: The Picts adopt Celtic Christianity entirely and choose St.Andrew as their patron saint, declaring the saltire the official symbol of Fortriu. St.Piran grows popular in Dumnonia.
  • 659: Arthur's war against the Wessexians continues and the Pictish war against the Bernicians continues as well. The leaders of Wessex send requests for help among other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, as do the Deirans, who although not in direct danger feel threatened by the power of Fortriu.
  • British kingdoms WarofWessex

    The Saxons were cut off from the Sea of Ireland after the War of Wessex

    The Bernician proposal gets its aid on the East Angle kingdom, where the East Anglians declare their intentions to follow the Pyrdish model and have the Bernician kings' daughter marry the King. Soon afterwards, a heir is declared and the Bernician and Anglians join into the kingdom of Niewe Angeln (New Anglia), which would later become Angleland (Angelcynn).
  • 661: Petroc, king of Dumnonia, and his son all die in a battle with the Wessexians under controversial means (it is said it was the Welsh army who slaid them) causing the Kingdom to be inherited by, once again, the Pyrdish (the murders of those marrying the Pyrdish king left the ap Cadwallon dynasty to be considered heavily Machiavellic and generally demonised throughout history). Wessex and Pyrdain sign peace, with Wessex giving up a huge amount of land.
  • 662: Fortriru finishes his conquest of northern Bernicia and finishes in a battle line in the Southern Tyne while starting the consolidation between the Northern and Southern Picts, ending up with a unified Kingdom of Uerturio.
  • 663: The rump state of Bernicia (now only measuring the area between the Tyne and Tees) joins Niewe Angeln. At the same time, to compensate for losses, the still strong Wessex attacks Sussex and quickly defeats them. The Jutish kingdom of Kent, feeling threatened, allies itself with Pyrdain and Uerturio.
  • 665: Wessex blocks Kent by surprise-invading Essex and after annexing it establishing the Kingdom of Niewe Seaxe (New Saxony, so not to be confused with the mainland Saxon Confederation. Kentians, feeling very threatened, begin migrating to the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly where Pyrdain grants them rights to settle. However, they do not yet abandon Kent.
  • 666: Pyrdain and Uerturio begin amassing their armies off the borders of Niewe Seaxe and Niewe Angeln.
  • 667: Saxon armies launch an offensive into Pyrdain. They temporarily break the local and surprised army before it falls back. Arthur places his son Cadwalar Ddraig Goch (the Red Dragon) in command of the main Pyrdish armies, while the Dumnonian ones go to his younger son Idwal Blaidd Drwg ("Bad Wolf"), only 15. Both of their nicknames would go on to be the main symbols of Pyrdain.
  • 668: Idwal makes a huge military lead, taking Seaxe lands all the way to Wight. Cadwalar also takes a mildly large army and lands it in Kent so to fortify the Jutes and occupy Sussex.
  • 669: Idwal goes on marching and at last sieging Winchester only to notice the Seaxian monarchy fled to the remains of Roman Londinium.
  • 670: The Seaxians begin amassing an army on London while the siege of Winchester continues and Cadwalar decides to keep to Kent for now.
  • 671: The Seaxians lead a small army off to Kent, which is promptly defeated by Cadwalar. Victory-obsessed, he marches towards London.
  • 672: Seaxe surprise Cadwalar by smashing his army with a relatively large one off the Thames. Cadwalar barely flees and returns to Kent.
  • 673: Idwal at last takes Winchester and keeps there after hearing the news concerning his brother.
  • 674: The Seaxian armies march west and seize Kent almost effortlessly when only Canterbury, Dubris/Dover, Rochester and a small Pyrdish army resistance in the Isle of Thanet puts up any resistance. The three areas are sieged.
  • 675: Pyrdain begins sending its somewhat mediocre fighting navy to send supplies at Dubris and Thanet. It fails at doing so after a mild storm ravages the main fleet centers.
  • 676: Pyrdain and Wessex begin attempting to strike a peace deal, realising none of the two nations can afford a major attack of the other's mainland.
  • 677: Pyrdain agrees to give up Kent in exchange for Wight. Both nations will be open for Jute inhabitation.
  • 678: Dál Riata and Uerturio begin unification when the Dálriatan noble Connieach mac Alpein takes over the Pictish throne. He then launches an invasion of his homeland to take over the land.
  • 679: Pyrdain gives support to Connieach and invades Dál Riata through the south.
  • 680: Dál Riata decides to make use of the lack of proper Welsh and Pictish navies by retiring to the Outer Hebrides and northern Ireland.
  • 681: Pyrdain tries to block this by sending a messenger to Fínsnechta Fledach, claimed High King of Ireland and King of Brega, to at last unify Ireland properly with Pyrdish support if he distracts the Dál Riatan navy. Fledach agrees.
  • 682: Tired of the heavy amount of wars, a second wave of Cornish, Welsh and Cumbric refugees leaves forth to Galicia and Brittany. The war continues in the North with Irish raiders attacking Dálriatan navies and ports. The last of the resisting Inner Hebrides fall with the surrender of Arinagour in Call Isle.
  • 683: With the Irish navy distracted by Ireland, the Welsh are at last able to land in the Outer Hebrides with their ships. They attempt to cross into Ulster, where they fight for Fledach. Fledach begins expansion against Connachta (ruled by the Flaithbertach clan), founding the military outpost of Hlarmhí in the region of Tethba.
  • 684: Ulaid continues collapsing to Fledach's invasion, with the region being divided in two parts by an offensive that takes a large part of central Ireland. The port of Béal Feirste (OTL Belfast) is founded so to establish a stronghold over the area.
  • 685: From Béal Feirste and outwards, Dál Riata is expelled into the inner areas of Ulaid. The last of the Outer Hebrides also fall, practically ending the first and largest phase of the Dalraitan War.
  • 686: The Ui Neill family rises to prominence after Fledach names him Lord of Ulaid, renaming the region to Ulster. In Britain, Uerturio and Dál Riata finally undergo unification as the Kingdom of Albion. The Dalriatan and Ulaid nobles flee to Oriel and Bréifne.
  • 687: Fledach dies and is replaced by Patrick I. He demands that Oriel give up Dalriatan nobles. Oriel refuses.
  • 688: Patrick sends troops into Oriel, swamping the somewhat small nation with far superior nations.
  • Cardiff Castle

    The Castle at mostly-Anglish Leadworth in the coast just north of Wight Island, the first of castles in the string

    690: Cadwalar succeeds Arthur after the latter dies peacefully in his sleep at the age of 65. Cadwalar, the Red Dragon, ascends to the throne, and, tired of war, begins building several castles in the border with Seaxe and Angeln, hoping this will dissuade
  • 690: Cadwalar continues to build his string of fortresses. In the east, King Penda ascends into the Anglian throne. He starts bringing upon a Pagan reformation, banishing Christians from the nation into Albion. The Albian king sees this as an opportunity to place the Saxons and the Anglians against each other, and tries to convince Cadwalar to join his plans, but he does not risk problems yet.

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