The British Empire is composed of various territories which can be divided into three categories: Constituants, crown lands and affiliates.
Constituants form the denter of the empire . They are the British Isles as well as oversea territories such as British North America. Subjects living in them elects representatives to lower house of the Imperial Parliement. A single Prime Minister governs the whole of the constituant territories.
Crown Lands are usually small territories such as the Channel Islands or native reserves. They have their own governments, the type of which differ from places to places and are based on ancestral treaties. The Crown Lands are not connected to the British government, except in cases of practicalities, but recognise the King Emperor as their head of state.
Affiliates are usualy former colonies with a "Non-White" majority. They have their own governments and head of states and are linked to the empire strictly though treaties. Their citizens are not considered subjects but are afforded sepcial status in certain areas such as education and employement rights.
The empire is the descendant of the union of the Kingdoms of Scotland and England and its colonies. Ireland was under english rule until being upgraded to Kingdom status and joining the union.
In the 1830s, the empire experienced a number of uprising including those in the Canadas as was as local ones lead by the Chartrists Movement.
The Imperial Parliament of the British Empire, coloquialy know as Westminster, is divided in 2: the lower and the upper houses.
The Lower House is made up of elected members representing ridings from all over constituant territories. It serves as the legislative body of the empire.
The Upper House is composed of non-elected members called Lords. Its purpose is to serve as a balance to the legislative by preventing from passing laws considered contrary to the well being of the empire. The house was originaly made up of noblemen from the British Isles. They were often accused of adopting strongly conservative and pro status quo stances thats clashed with the aspirations of the masses, especialy oversea. The entry of non-islanders as well as changing attitudes has meant, however, that like the king emperor, their powers have been curtailed in recent years though not to the point of making them strictly symbolic. There has been called as of late of abolishing hereditary lordships replacing it with lifetime ones with new lords being named by the king emperor on the advice of the government.
The head of government is the Prime Minister which is appointed by the King Emperor. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party having the largest representation in the lower house of the parliament although legally speaking, the King Emperor could choose anyone including a lord.
The Head of state of the empire is the King Emperor who gain his current title after his predecessor became empress of India. Despite his title, his powers are actualy quite limited, having been eroded over the years. For example, although he still can technically dissolve parliament of his one accord, he has never used such power since this might create a constitutional crisis and that he knows that he reign only at the suffrance of his subjects.