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The American Revolution was arguably one of the most important events in modern history. It went on to shape a nation which would become one of the world's major superpowers. The revolution wasn't just an American event; it also lead to Napoleon's rise to power, which ended up forming modern-day Italy and Germany. In this timeline, there are numerous factors that lead to the failure of the American Revolution. The British failed to understand the depth of the Patriot act in OTL, which acted as a slight disadvantage for the British, which was one of the factors leading to the Patriot victory. In this ATL, the French also don't invest as much into the revolution, also factoring to the American failure.
This timeline also has an alternate Seven Years' War. Due to Prussia wanting to gain more land in the Holy Roman Empire, France got each of the German states to go to war on their side. Bengal also went to war on the side of the British as the French had a colony on land formerly theirs. The dying Zunghar Empire made an alliance with the British, while the Qing Dynasty that was trying to conquer it sided with the French. This was a good decision for the Zunghars, as the British ended up winning. The war was a much closer fight than in TTL, leading the British to become more cautious when it came to keeping their empire large. This gave the British motivation to fight against the Americans in the revolution.
Due to the French not aiding as much as they did in OTL, the French Revolution never happens. There were still protests over France's economic state, although there was no full-on war over it. Napoleon's conquests never happen either. This was what lead to the creation of modern-day Germany and Italy, and in this timeline, states like Prussia and Naples exist to this day. There still were some movements to unify the Italian peninsula during WWI. Tuscany and Naples agreed to form a union and the Papal States ceded a portion of their land to the new union. In 1919, the territories fused into one nation.
As modern-day Germany and Italy never formed, colonies also changed. Venice colonized all of Papua Island, parts of northern Africa, as well as a small part of Indochina. Bavaria colonized a small part of Burma before the British were able to do so, and Saxony colonized a part of Eastern Africa. Various other countries had colonies although they were eventually lost, primarily because of World War I and World War II.
World War I would still be similar to what it was in OTL, as Austria-Hungary's formation was independent to all of the changes made in this ATL. World War II, however, was quite different. Because modern-day Germany and Italy never formed, both Hitler and Mussolini never rose to power. Instead, WWII was caused by Imperial Japan's invasions of China and French Indochina. France, Siam, and China all declared war on Japan. After the Japanese conquered Macau, Portugal joined the war, eventually leading to another World War, against the Japanese Empire and allied nations.
Due to there never being an American Revolution or a French Revolution, Communism is reduced to being a small faction that has relatively no power, meaning that the Russian Revolutions of the 1900s are reduced to small Anarcho-Liberal peasants revolting for more autonomy within the government, which the Russian army quickly crushes. However, during these revolts new countries form like in real life; however most of these nations managed to live on; unlike in the actual Russian Revolution, there was no powerful force to annex them.
As Napoleon never came to power, France never regained the Great Plains; Mexico is much bigger than in OTL. During the 1830s-40s, numerous Mexican provinces gained independence; Texas still gained independence; Texas still received an influx of immigrants, but from British America instead of the United States. During the 1840s, the new Republic of Texas helped provinces of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Yucatan, and Alta California gain independence from Mexico.
The South American independence wars never happened either; they happened due to inspiration from Haiti's war of independence, which in turn was a part of the French Revolution. Spain, Portugal, and the other colonial powers held on to South America until the mid-1900s.
In 1950, the United Kingdom gave independence to their North American colony and held referenda for each state over independence. New York, Massachusetts, and Virginia gained independence. Maine (formerly part of Massachusetts), and the territories of Delaware, Vermont, New Hampshire, and others joined Canada. Every other colony became a new nation, called Columbia. Shortly after, they gave independence to the areas that weren't part of the original colonies; one became the nation of the Great Lakes, consisting of Michigan's lower peninsula and parts of Ohio and Indiana. The British gave the regions with low populations of Europeans over to the Amerindians, in which they still thrive today; in the Aboriginal Federation, a nation in which modernization and the peoples' tribal roots fuse together.