The Americans ulitmately emerged victorious in the war, mostly due to lack of British interest in the conflict and lack of resources due to the destruction of the British navy in 1808. The war was fought over a much longer time than necessary, since battles came months apart usually, as the Americans could not decide where to invade, whether to attack certain cities, and how far into Canada they should go. This is likely due to a lack of capable military leadership on the side of the youmg United States.
Course of the War
The conflict began in early 1806 with a Congressional declaration of war on Britain and American march into Toronto. American forces occupied the city and harassed the population, grouping them in with the British in Europe. However, they quickly learned that the Canadians longed for independence as well, and many decided to help the American soldiers by feeding and sheltering them.
Meanwhile, the British responded with an invasion of Americamand marched all the way to Albany before being ousted by a hostile civilian population and dedicated defenses, but they maintained a presence in America until the end of 1807 and occupied the northeast all the way to Boston.
America decided that the best way to drive the British out of their home country to win a string of victories along the major border cities and force them to return to defend them, and subsequently defeat them upon their return. The first of these attacks came at Ottawa, following a march from Toronto in late 1806. The Americans were initially driven back by the more expertly trained and hardened British soldiers, but eventually broke through the defenses and occupied the city, followed by Montreal in Spring 1807.
By this time, the British had destroyed much of the northeastern United States in hopes of forcing a surrender, but in actuality, the ferocity of American troops increased and Quebec fell in late 1807, so the British returned to defend Canada amidst fears of a collapse on both the North American and European fronts. The Brits were defeated several times along the northern border and eventually surrendered in early 1808, although some forces remained in the northern provinces, and King George III ordered that they defend Canada from the American threat. Both sides were unsure what to do at this point, since America had all of Canada's major cities, and the British troops were cut off from aid following the destruction of the navy by Napoleon.
Hudson Bay Campaign
See main article: Hudson Bay Campaign (Louisiana Revolution)