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Brazilian Civil War
Beginning:

January 2, 1957

End:

July 15, 1962

Place:

Brazil

Outcome:

Imperial victory. Installation of an absolute monarchy.

Combatants

Pro-government
DB2 Dark Brazilian Empire
Loyals to the Empire
Absolutists
Other monarchists
Flag of the United States United States air force

Rebels
Socialist republicans
Other republicans
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955) Soviet air force
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955) Soviet navy

Commanders

DB2 D. Pedro III

João Goulart
José Henrique de Souza
Augusto Lima

Strength

2.5 million soldiers (all combatants)

c. 740,000 rebels
c. 10,000 Soviet soldiers

Casualties and Losses

1,560 soldiers killed, 320 injured

1,234 died,
c. 2,500 arrested

The Brazilian Civil War was a civil war fought between the Dark Brazilian Empire and socialist rebels in Brazil between 1957 and 1962. The war ended with the Empire's victory.

Causes

With the onset of the Cold War in 1947, Brazil remains as a neutral country. This gives room to several republican and socialist movements throughout the country during the 1940s and 50s. The United States and its capitalist allies, worried about the potential rise of a socialist People's Republic of Brazil, send spies to the country in 1954. These spies fund and encourage anti-socialist parties and movements and do their best to weaken the growth of socialist parades and support, which were described by the media as "unstoppable".

By the end of this same year (1954), a strong opposition movement favoring the monarchy and capitalism arises. It grows quickly in number of adepts, and their ideology soon begins to support strict anti-socialist laws. An internal shift occurs when extremists take the lead of this movement and transform it into a pro-absolutist armed organization, which views the democratic constitution and the parliament as weaknesses susceptible to socialist influence. The movement is almost splitted into two as many democrats opposed the extremists, but the two groups ultimately decide to work together and by December, they outnumber the socialist coalition.

Nevertheless, movements associated with the left coalition continue. Successive attempts to overthrow the Empire occur. An attempt to assassinate the Emperor in 1955 is followed by great commotion. In 1957, the Emperor writes and enacts a constitution which gives himself almost absolute power and is supported by the monarchist coallition. The socialist coallition responds by starting the inevitable bloody armed conflict on January 2 of that year.

The war

From 1957 to 1959, the war consisted of several battles between the Imperial Army (plus the royalist militias) and the armed rebels across the entire territory of Brazil. In 1959, the Brazilian Navy and Air Force join the war reduce the rebels to much smaller numbers.

Brazil takes the lead until 1960, when divisions of the Soviet Navy and Air Forces, which equaled Brazil in strength, arrive to assist the rebels. Many Brazilian airplanes are shot down by the Soviets, which causes the death of 67 soldiers. In contrast, the majority of Soviet ships could not even approach the Brazilian coast, due to very strong sea patrol. Some, however, engaged in violent naval battles.

In 1961, the US Air Force arrives an fights the Soviets and the socialist rebels. The Soviets withdraw in November 1961, followed by Americans in Decemebr. On February 15, 1962, the last rebels surrend and the war is finally over.

Post-war

With the support of all victorious forces, the absolute monarchy is established in Brazil in July 15, 1962, along with the new repressive constitution. The Dark Brazilian Empire is born.

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