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Brazilian Civil War (Dark Brazilian Empire)

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Brazilian Civil War
Beginning:

January 2, 1957

End:

July 15, 1962

Place:

Brazil

Outcome:

Imperial victory. Installation of absolute monarchy.

Combatants

Pro-government
DB2 Dark Brazilian Empire
Loyals to the Empire
Absolutists
Other monarchists
Flag of the United States United States air force

Rebels
Socialist republicans
Other republicans
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955) Soviet air force
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955) Soviet navy

Commanders

DB2 D. Pedro III

João Goulart
José Henrique de Souza
Augusto Lima

Strength

2.5 million soldiers (all combatants)

c. 140,000 rebels
c. 10,000 Soviet soldiers

Casualties and Losses

1,560 soldiers killed, 320 injured

1,234 died,
c. 2,500 arrested

Brazilian Civil War was a civil war fought between the Dark Brazilian Empire and republican-socialist rebels in Brazil between 1957 and 1962. The war ended with the Empire's victory.

Causes

With the onset of the Cold War in 1947, Brazil remains as a neutral country. This gives room to several republican and socialist movements throughout the country during the 1940s and 50s. This awarned the United States and its capitalist allies about the potential rise of a socialist People's Republic in Brazil. This leads to the sending of American and British spies to Brazil in 1956. These spies fund and encourage anti-socialist parties and movements and do their best to weaken the growth of socialist parades and support, which were divulged by the media as "unstoppable".

By the end of this same year (1956), a strong pro-monarchy and capitalism opposition moviment arises. It grows quickly in number of adepts, and their ideology soon embraces support for strict anti-socialist laws. A great internal shift occurs when extremists take the lead of this movement and transform it into a pro-absolutist armed organization, which views the democratic constitution and the parliament as weaknesses susceptible to socialist influence. Instead of spliting the movment into two, the new ideology is embraced by its older adderents and by December, it outnumbers the republican-socialist coalition.

Nevertheless, movements associated to the left coalition continue. In 1957, the government enacts a strongly supported constitution which gives almost absolute power to the Emperor, leading to a inevitable bloody armed conflict in January 2 of that year.

The war

The war consisted of great battles between the imperial army (plus the royalist armed militias) and the armed rebels across the entire territory of Brazil. When the Navy and Air Force go into action in 1959, the rebels lose their much of their hope, as they were in much smaller numbers. But the battles continues, and by 1960 the rebels receive the support of the Soviet Navy and Air Force. Many Brazilian airplanes are shot down by the Soviets, which causes the death of 67 soldiers. In contrast, the majority of Soviet ships could not even approach the Brazilian coast, due to very strong sea patrol. Some, however, engage in violent naval battles. In 1961, Brazil receives support from the US Air Force to fight the Soviets and the socialist rebels. The Soviets withdraw in November 1961, and consequently do the Americans in December. On February 15, 1962, the last rebels surrend and the war is finally over.

Post-war

With the support of all victorious forces, the absolute monarchy is established in Brazil in July 15, 1962, along with the new repressive constitution. The Dark Brazilian Empire is born.

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