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Brazilian Civil War (Dark Brazilian Empire)

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Brazilian Civil War
Beginning:

January 2, 1957

End:

July 15, 1962

Place:

Brazil

Outcome:

Government's victory. Installation of absolute monarchy.

Combatants

Pro-government
DB2 Dark Brazilian Empire
Loyals to the Empire
Absolutists
Other monarchists
Flag of the United States United States air force

Rebels
Socialist republicans
Other republicans
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955)Soviet air force
Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955)Soviet navy

Commanders

DB2 D. Pedro III

João Goulart
José Henrique de Souza
Augusto Lima

Strength

2.5 million soldiers

c. 14.000 rebels

Casualties and Losses

156 soldiers died, 32 injured

1234 died,
c. 2500 arrested

Brazilian Civil War was a civil war that happened in Brazil between 1957 and 1962, fought between the Dark Brazilian Empire and republican-socialist rebels.

Causes

With the onset of the Cold War in 1947, Brazil remained as a neutral country. It gave space to several Republican and Socialist movements throughout the country during the 1940s and 1950s. This awarned the United States and its capitalist allies about a the rise of pro-people's republic conscience. This led to the sending of American and British spies to Brazil in 1956. These spies funded and encouraged anti-socialist parties and movements and did their best to weaken the growth of socialist parades and support, divulged by the media as "unstoppable".

By the end of this same year (1956), a strong pro-monarchy and capitalism opposition moviment arises. It grows quickly in number of adepts, and their ideology soon embraces support for strict anti-socialist laws. A great internal shift occurs when extremists take the lead of this movement and transforms it into a pro-absolutist armed organization, which views the democratic constitution and the parliament as weaknesses susceptible to socialist influence. Instead of spliting the movment into two, the new ideology is embraced by its older adderents and by December outnumbers the republican-socialist coalition.

Nevertheless, movements associated to the left coalition continued. In 1957, the government enacts a strongly supported constitution which gives almost absolute power to the Emperor, leading to a inevitable bloody armed conflict in January 2 of that year.

The war

The war consisted of great battles between the imperial army (and the pro-government armed militias) and the armed rebels across the entire territory of Brazil. When the Navy and Air Force went into action in 1959, the rebels lost their hopes, as they were in much smaller number. But the battle continued, and by 1960 the rebels had the support of the Soviet Navy and the Air Force. Many Brazilian airplanes were shot down by the Soviets, which caused the death of 67 soldiers. In contrast, the majority of Soviet ships could not even approach the Brazilian coast, due to very strong sea patrol. In 1961, Brazil acquired support from U.S. Air Force to fight the Soviets and the socialist rebels. The Soviets withdrew in November 1961, and consequently did the Americans in December. On February 15, 1962, the last rebels surrendered and the war was finally over.

Post-war

With the support of all victorious forces, the absolute monarchy was established in Brazil in July 15, 1962, along with the new repressive constitution. The Dark Brazilian Empire with its terrible dictatorial laws is born.

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