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Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is a republican nation located in South America. It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas and the largest lusophone country in the world.
The territory now known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, and for the next 300 years the Portuguese slowly expanded westwards until they had reached nearly all of the borders of modern Brazil.
Dom João VI, King of Portugal, named his son and heir Prince Dom Pedro as Regent of Brazil in 1821. After years of negotiations and unsuccessful revolutions attempts, José Bonifácio de Andrada, along with other Brazilian leaders, convinced to Pedro to declare Brazil's independence from Portugal, which occurs on 7 September 1831.
On 12 October 1831, Prince Pedro was acclaimed Dom Pedro I, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil. It was concurrently the beginning of Pedro's reign and the birth of the independent Empire of Brazil, with the Portuguese blessing.
Empire of Brazil
Emperor Pedro soon made aside his initial liberal ideals with a new Constitution (proclaimed on February 24, 1832) that was providing an out-standing power to him, something that he considered necessary to keep the control in the interior zones. However, this cause some republican revolts in the north of Brazil, which were crushed fiercely.
Finally, after of three years ruling the empire, Pedro I died because of tuberculosis in 1834, and was succeded by his son Pedro (II), but who only had nine year.
Regency & Reign of Pedro II
Due to young age of the new Emperor, this forced to create a Regency which ruling the nation until that Pedro reach the age of majority. His elevation as emperor ushered in a period of crisis, the most troublesome in Brazil's history until the fall of Garrastazu Médici and the Civil War of 1977. The disputes between political factions led to several rebellions and resulted in an unstable, almost anarchical, situation under the regents.
In 1835, took place the Malê Revolt, perhaps the most significant slave rebellion in Brazil, in the city of Salvador da Bahia. Soon, the Imperial Army was sent and crushed the revolt with brutal force like another insurrections.
The possibility of lowering the young emperor's age of majority, instead of waiting until he turned 18 on 2 December 1843, had been floated since 1835. The idea had received support from both main political parties. The Brazilian people also supported lowering the age of majority, as they considered Pedro II "the living symbol of the unity of the fatherland"; this position "gave him, in the eyes of public opinion, a higher authority than that of any regent.
Those advocating the immediate elevation of Pedro II to majority passed a motion requesting the Emperor assume full powers. A delegation was sent to the Palace of São Cristóvão to ask whether Pedro II would accept or reject an early declaration of his majority. He accept. On the following day, 23 July 1840, the Assembléia Geral (General Assembly) formally declared the 14-year-old Pedro II of age. There, in the afternoon, the young emperor took the oath of office. He was acclaimed, crowned and consecrated on 18 July 1841.
Reign of Isabel I
Reign of Pedro III
First Republic (1949-1977)
Collapse and Civil War (1977-1979)
Government & Politics
The Federative Republic of Brazil are a the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District, according the established by the Constitution.
The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system. The president is both head of state and head of government of the Federation and is elected for a six-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term.