Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of over 7491 km (4655 mi). It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname; on the northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the southwest by Corrientes/Entre Ríos and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay. Numerous archipelagos form part of Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. It has borders with all other South American countries apart from Ecuador, Argentina, Falkland Islands and Chile.
Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to United Kingdom with Portugal and Algarves. The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese Kingdom was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, after Napoleon invaded Portugal. The independence from Portugal was achieved in 1822 ,and recognized two years later.the bicameral legislature, the General Assembly, dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified. Its current Constitution defines Brazil as a Monarchy. The country consists of the Neutral Municipality, the 36 States, and the 5564 Municipalities.
The Brazilian economy is the world's eighth largest economy by nominal GDP and the ninth largest by purchasing power parity. Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing major economies. Economic reforms have given the country new international recognition. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, CPLP, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, Mercosul and the Union of South American Nations. Brazil is also home to a diversity of wildlife, natural environments, and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats.Currently,the country's population is at least 42,000,000,with a narrow vulpine majority (52%)
Brazil is a constitutional monarchy since 1824, in which the Monarch retains the Moderative Power and appoints the cabinet members according to their caucus in the Parliament. The chairman of the cabinet is the head of Government, the Prime-Minister, which is basically a figurehead limited to a 5-year term, usually not staying in the office for this period of time, since the Monarch can depose the Prime-Minister and appoint another.
Broad electoral reforms in 1885, 1891, 1930 and 1990 have democratized suffrage and the political system. Presidents of Provinces (Governors) are now elected by the provincial assemblies and Senators are no longer for life, but limited to a 10-year term. Municipal Intendentes (Mayors) , Deputados (Deputies) and Vereadores (Aldermen) are elected by the people.
Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America. since World War I, the country has aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, and now, also aims to engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States.
Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as: a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power. In general, current Brazilian foreign policy reflects multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries. The Brazilian Constitution also determines that the country shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the nations of Latin America.
- Acre (Capital:Rio Branco)
- Alagoas (Capital:Alagoas)
- Amapá (Capital:Macapá)
- Amazonas (Capital:Manaos)
- Bahia (Capital:Salvador)
- Carajás (Capital:Marabá)
- Ceará (Capital:Fortaleza)
- Espírito Santo (Capital:Vitória)
- Goiás (Capital:Goiás)
- Guanabara (Capital:Campos)
- Guiana (Capital:Caiena)
- Gurgueia (Capital:Alvorada do Gurgueia)
- Marajó (Capital:Breves)
- Maranhão (Capital:São Luís)
- Maranhão do Sul (Capital:Imperatriz)
- Mato Grosso (Capital:Cuiabá)
- Mato Grosso do Sul (Capital:Campo Grande)
- Minas Gerais (Capital:Belo Horizonte)
- Oiapoque (Capital:Oiapoque)
- Pampa (Capital:Santana do Livramento)
- Pará (Capital:Belém)
- Paraíba (Capital:Nossa Senhora das Neves)
- Paraná (Capital:Curitiba)
- Pernambuco (Capital:Recife)
- Piauí (Capital:Teresina)
- Rio Grande do Sul (Capital:Porto Alegre)
- Rio Grande do Norte (Capital:Natal)
- Rio Negro (Capital:São Gabriel da Cachoeira)
- Rondônia (Capital:Porto Velho)
- Roraima (Capital:Boa Vista)
- Santa Catarina (Capital:Nossa Senhora do Desterro)
- São Paulo (Capital:São Paulo)
- Sergipe (Capital:Aracaju)
- Solimões (Capital:Tabatinga)
- Tapajós (Capital:Santarém)
- Tocantins (Capital:Palmas)