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United Empire of Brésil
Empire Unis du Brésil
Brazil Imperii Unitum Est
Timeline: Principia Moderni IV (Map Game)
OTL equivalent: Empire of Brazil
Flag of Brésil Nic 2.png
Motto: 
La Constitution, L'Union, et L'Empereur!
(The Constitution, The Union, and The Emperor!)
Anthem: 
Par La Persévérance Sous Dieu
(Through Perseverance Under God)
Royal anthem: 
De Florence à Nouveau Alençon
(From Florence to New Alençon)
PMIVBresil 1806.png
The French Red color shows territories of Brésil that are colonized and settled, the Red-Pink color shows territories that are claimed not colonized, and the Striped territories are claimed and disputed territory with Argenta.
Capital
(and largest city)
Saint-Denis
Official languages French, Latin
Regional Languages German, Basque, Portuguese, Castilian, Indigenous languages
Demonym French
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Representative Unicameral Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
 -  Emperor Alexandre I of Brésil
Legislature Grand Assembly
History
 -  Discovered 1503 
 -  First Settlement 1529 
 -  Arrival of French 1543 
 -  Captaincies Established 1631 
 -  Antarctique Established 1642 
 -  Riviere D'Argent 1778 
 -  Empire Established 1786 
Population
 -  1806 census 8,164,866 
Currency Brésilian Florin (ƒ) (BSF)

The United Empire of Brésil (French: Empire Unis du Brésil) is a constitutional monarchy in Eastern Laurentia, originating as the Captaincy of New Valois (Nouveau Valois) and the Governorship of Antartique as a colonies under France. Brésil officially became independent in 1586, when they broke their union with Riviere D'Argent and wrote a constitution.

History

Discovery, Exploration, and Settlement

The territory of modern-day Brésil was first discovered in 1586 by the Burgundian explorer, David Lauwen. Most accounts record that Lauwen briefly landed ashore, before sailing north to Rupertstad. Once word of his discoveries made it back to Europe, the land became an interest of King Manuel I of Portugal. Manuel sponsored the first settlement in Brésil in 1529 at the location of modern-day Atterrir-Haut, then called São Paulo. Manuel created a royal charter named the new colony "Brasil" due to the discovery of the cash crop known was Brazil-wood. Even though it was named after the wood, the main export of the colony was sugarcane. By December of that year, one hundred and fifty settlers inhabited the colony.

Finally in 1543, the French captain Mathis Valentin reached land at modern-day Rivière du Comte and founded the first French settlement in the region. Around the same period, German merchants began flooding into southern parts of the region due to an increase in the extraction of Brazil-wood. Decades later, French settlements slowly move up the northeastern coast, leading to the foundation of Saint Pierre in 1578. Even though French hegemony in the region started to be established, Germans continued to migrate for Brazil-wood settling areas around Villellemande and even the Knights Hospitaller settled a small colony in the area in 1582. Through the 1600s the French colony continued to expand North and gained the name Brésilland for its wood. In 1630, yet another colony was founded, but this time under Frédéric, Comte d'Augsbourg the head of the French East India company in northern Brésil. This colony functioned as a major port for connect to the French East Indies, and sustained itself with its massive sugarcane production. Frédéric d'Augsbourg named the colony Nouvelle Calabre, which is the modern-day capital Nouveau Alençon.

Captaincy and Governorship

Since the beginning of French settlements in Brésil, the colonies were relatively unorganized under royal charters by the King of France. This was the situation until 1631, when the the head of the French East India company, Comte d'Augsbourg separated the charters into several French captaincies. These captaincies are given to families who in turn hold it as a fiefdom for the Royal East India Company, with its capital in Nouvelle Calabre. These families included the Orange, Welser, Fugger, and Medici among countless others. In order to stimulate growth and usage of the sugar plantations in the Captaincies, they begin to bring over African indentured servants from the Kingdom of Kongo.

In 1636, King Charles X ordered the seizure of German Brazil south of the French colony. The invasion was successful, and the German colony was absorbed into the Royal East India Company by 1638. In the treaty signed over the peace of between the colonies, Charles X guaranteed the rights of German in Brésilian soil, and guarantee that still protects the minority group into the present.

The colony also continued to expand inland West, concentrated along the Parando and Pilcomayo rivers. A large amount of French traders settled in the coastal cities attracted by the policies of the Royal East India Company. Another small-scale invasion expanded the colony with seizure of some Portuguese lands in 1641. Due to all of this expansion, the Governorship of French Antarctique was created in 1642 which separated the French colonies along the latitude of Rivière du Comte. In this period, silver grew as an export of Brésil.

Six years later, in retaliation for the earlier French invasion, the Portuguese invaded French Brésil. In two years they had occupied nearly all of major cities in Brésil. Many cities were burned, massacres were made against the French settlers, and Iberian settlers seized the property of many French ones. The most known massacre is the Victoire Slaughter were French settlers refuse to provide food or housing to Portuguese troops and in return their city was burnt to the ground. By 1650, the story had changed with France being able to reoccupy their colonies and occupy the Portuguese ones. The war ended with status quo ante bellum between the nations, even though many French wanted revenge for the massacres they were subject to.

In the next decade although Brésil continued to gain prosperity from its exports of brazil-wood, sugar, and silver many problems arose for the colony. Pirates were conducting large scale invasions on northern coastal cities which was stalling shipping and growth. Resources of the colonial government also needed to be siphoned off in the search for a man known as the wandering Jew. This also caused a large amount of internal migration in Brésil.

Another conflict against Iberia occurred starting in 1698, but this time the French government was prepared. French and English troops were stationed in many cities and on the coast. This would halt any large-scale Iberian invasion of the colony like there was before. The Iberian instead resorted to blockading the coast for most of the war and doing sackings of cities before retreating. Looting on French shipping also occurred during the conflict effectively halting trade. By 1706, Savoyard troops sent by Iberia had occupied the capital of the captaincies, which forced the French king to sign peace. Only minor changes are made to the colonies in Brésil, and the King helped the colony recover through financing reconstruction of cities.

In 1725, following the death of Guálter de Sá, the Parnaíba Iberian colony in northern Brésil is abandoned and returned to France, although keeping a plurality of Iberian settlers. The captaincies continued to expand and gain prosperity through 1700s, moving inland with many settlements on rivers.

Union With Riviere D'Argent

By the late 1700s, influence over French Brésil was split between two entities. In the north, it was mainly influenced by the Royal East India Company, while the south was under influence of the Viceroyalty of Riviere D'Argent. Riviere D'Argent gained more and more influence, especially in the political situation of Brésil. This led the viceroy to institute the very unfavorable Actes Intolerables and removal of self-governance in Brésil. Under this the Brésilians felt betrayed, and when Riviere D'Argent declared itself a republic next year, after a brief union, they declared their own separate government.

Independence

Due to the dissatisfaction with the government of the new state of Riviere D'Argent and their Actes Intolerables and the removal of Brazilian self-governance, the captains of New Valois and the governor of French Antarctique meet with each other in Nouveau Alençon to create a new government. The “founding fathers” declare their own independence as the United Empire of Brésil with the union of the captaincies of New Valois and the governorship of French Antarctique. Over the next few weeks, the founders write a constitution for their new nation which guarantees many rights including freedom of speech, assembly, to vote, and press. The constitution also sets up the new government as representative unicameral parliamentary constitutional monarchy. After lots of debate, the founders choose the new emperor to be one of their own, the former Grand Captain of New Alençon, Nicolas Alexandre de Medici-Brésil (who takes the name Nicolas I of Brésil) and create the Grand Assembly.

Politics

The United Empire of Brésil is a representative unicameral parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The head of state is referred to as Emperor of Brésil, while the head of government is known as Grand Deputy.

Grand Assembly

The consitution states that the Grand Assembly is a legislative body made up of members known as deputies. The body has many powers including making laws for the nation, taxing the nation, and checking the power of the Emperor. The members of the Grand Assembly are elected by constiuency districts every four years on the last Saturday of the month, and can only be re-elected once. On the first day that the body assembles, the deputies have a majority vote among themselves to elect the Grand Deputy who acts as head of the body.

The assembly meets throughout the week on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. The body opens at noon, and deputies propose, discuss, and debate laws for six hours. The last two hours are reserved for voting on laws. With the formation of parties in 1798, parties usually meet on separate occasions to discuss proposals, and then bring them to the body. The Grand Deputy can call an emergency meeting or emergency vote if there is a pressing issue. Once laws are passed with a majority or amendments to the constitution are passed with a supermajority, the document is taken to the emperor who can approve or veto laws. 

Emperor

The Emperor is the head of state of the nation and is in control of the executive branch. Their powers include management of foreign relations, commander-in-chief, the right to veto legislation, and appoint judges. It is a hereditary role with agnatic primogeniture, but it is very limited by the constitutio and assembly, unlike its counterparts in Europe.

Royal Family

The Medici-Brésil Dynasty is the ruling family of the United Empire of Brésil. The House of Medici-Brésil is a cadet branch of the House of Medici, and rose to prominence after it was given control of one of the captaincies of New Valois in 1631. The founder of the House of Medici-Brésil is Nicolas Alexandre I when he became Emperor of Brésil in 1786 after being selected by the founding fathers of Brésil.

House of Medici

  • Nicolas I Alexandre (1747-1806) Emperor of Brésil = Florentine Welser
    • Alexandre Nicolas (1773) Emperor of Brésil = Françoise Monteil
      • Alexandre Francisque (1797) Prince Imperial of Brésil
      • Florentine Virginie (1801)
    • Cosme Nicolas (1775) = Viviane Savoia
      • Nicolas Cosme (1799)
      • Claude (1803)
      • Bernadette Florentine (1805)
    • Hippolyte Nicolas (1778) = Marie-Thérèse Kahoowha
    • Virginie Caterina (1782) = Ambroise Bonaparte
    • Alphonse Francisque (1783) = Rosette Savoia
      • Sylvie Rosette (1807)

Grand Parlement

In 1798, Grand Deputy Jean-Pascal Nicollier with a 60-40 vote, authorized the official creation of the Grande Parlement, the highest court in the nation. The court officially has eleven members, with one of them being the Grande Justice. Each Justice has a ten year mandate, and a new one is appointed every year so their mandates don’t all expire at once. Every other year, their appointments alternate between the Emperor and the Grand Deputy. With the Emperor also appointing justices in lower courts, the Grand Parlement heads a relatively weak judiciary, heavily influenced by executive and legislative branches. There is no official amendment for it in the constitution, so it can technically be disbanded any time after its creation in 1808.

Imperial Ministries

Imperial Ministries have little to no power and basically serve as advisers to the Emperor under the executive branch. The ministries are headed by ministers. Mostly nobles are appointed by the Emperor for this position so he can satisfy the major nobles families throughout Brazil. Imperial Ministries include the Ministry of State, Ministry of Treasury, Ministry of War, and the Ministry of Transportation and Post.

Foreign Relations

Military

Economy

Currency

Throughout its colonial history, Brésil's currency was the French Livre (short for Livre Tournois) mostly minted out of Tours, France. Although it experienced some changes over time, it was subdivided into 20 sous (also sols), each of 12 deniers with its worth being based off of silver.

After independence, Brésil quickly adopted Brésilian Liberté. This currency was based off of eights with it being subdivided into 8 Blancs, each of 8 Deniers. 8 Libertés would then equal a Livre de Saint Pierre. The coins were only minted at one location in Saint Pierre.

Twelve years later, under the Coinage Act of 1798, the currency was officially decimalised and formed into the Brésilian Florin. This currency would have two minting locations with another mint opening up in Villellemande. The Florin would be subdivided into 100 deniers.

Value Name Minted Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
ƒ0.005 Milles 1798–present Brass Plain Lily C.U.E.
ƒ0.01 Deniers 1798–present Copper Plain Two Lilies C.U.E.
ƒ0.02 Cinquantièmes 1798–present Copper Plain Saint Martin Oriflamme
ƒ0.03 Triolets 1798–present Copper/Silver Plain Saint Remi Oriflamme
ƒ0.05 Vingtièmes 1798–present Copper/Silver Reeded Joan of Arc Oriflamme
ƒ0.10 Dixièmes 1798–present Silver (.750) Plain Emperor Oriflamme
ƒ0.20 Quintes 1798–present Silver (.750) Plain Emperor Oriflamme
ƒ0.25 Quarts 1798–1805 Silver (.900) Reeded Emperor Oriflamme
ƒ0.5 Demi-Florins 1798–present Silver (.900) Reeded Emperor Oriflamme
ƒ1 Florins 1798–present Silver (.900) Reeded Emperor Oriflamme
ƒ2 Jumeaux 1798–present Gold (.750) Reeded Saint Denis Oriflamme
ƒ5 Libertés 1798–present Gold (.750) Reeded Saint Denis Oriflamme
ƒ10 Lys 1798–present Gold (.750) Reeded Saint Denis Oriflamme
ƒ100 Lys d'Or 1798–present Gold (.900) Enscription Saint Denis Oriflamme

Footnotes

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