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Original Native Settlements
The oldest evidence of human settlement in this area goes back to the Paleolithic Era, as seen from evidence such as the Kenniwick man. After the end of the Ice Age, Amerindian peoples crossed over the Bering Strait and populated throughout the continent. The tribes that settled in this area were mostly the Salish and Chinook tribes.
Under Hispanic Rule
The Spanish first arrived in this area in 1570. The settlement was started by a few opportunistic missionaries from New Granada as a way of organizing the local tribes into better trading partners. Although originally just a church with the sole purpose of converting, it quickly grew into a great town surrounded by heavily-armed forts. This church is now a popular tourist attraction as one of the oldest buildings still standing in Borealia.
Although this mission reached thousands of converts in the area, most of the natives retreated farther north around 1577.
While the mission enjoyed relative autonomy for a long time, it was eventually absorbed into the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1725, and thereafter divided into smaller provinces. This was during Hispania's last great push for more territory in the New World. After this absorption, however, the land was relatively forgotten as it fell behind much of the world economically and culturally. Buildings from the 1730's and 1740's are famous for having an almost medieval style to them.
The Spanish Colonial War (1737-1749) was one of the major campaigns of the War of the Grand Coalition, in which most of the states and dependencies of the New World allied against the Empire of Hispania. New Granada was dismantled mostly by French forces, aside from a single invasion across the Klamath Mountains by New Bavaria. It was during this invasion that Juan Detend, the only Hispanic governor of that region, was severely wounded and taken out of action. He would later die of infection in 1751.
Under Article VIII of the Treaty of Toledo, the northern portion of New Granada (later known as California) was ceded to Bavaria, while the rest of the colony when to France.
Under Bavarian Rule
Queen Frances of Bavaria was sure to keep a gentle hand on the Spanish territories, knowing well that the people won't take a sudden change of government too easily. Re-establishing the colony as New Austria, she ensured that the people enjoyed quite a bit of autonomy aside from a few standard stipulations. Her only mistake, it would seem, would be to use the colony as an outlet for all Austrians who felt oppressed back in Europe. This sudden mix of cultures caused immense friction, leading to a complete riot in 1752. But the situation was dealt with by the shrewdness of the new governor, Gaspar de Portola. He diverted the issue by proposing constant building projects, a policy that continued well after his time. Once the new infrastructure of New Austria was complete, he separated peoples of German and Hispanic origin until their cultures more peacefully mixed. He certainly helped to speed up this mixing process by requiring both German and Spanish languages to be taught.
Interest in the plains began in 1766 when the entrepreneur Johann Baptist de Fages discovered the potential of buffalo products. He established a trading village near a great salt lake, which later became known as Kristallstadt. Soon after its establishment, the bison trade became the most stable facet of Borealian economy and culture, eventually making its way to the Borealian flag in 1796. Trade for bison with the Nehilaw Sachemate (later known as Algonquia) began in 1767, and this later contributed to the two nations' close alliance. A big trading city in the plains quickly became New Munich, which was established in 1765. This sudden expansion eastward, however, made it necessary to establish semi-autonomous governments out of the city councils in the far east. After a series of attacks from the Sioux in 1770, these city governments were also authorized to raise their own militias.
As other aspects of their culture, rifles started becoming popular for sport in 1760, and this later became a potent feature in the eastern militias. The first printing press in Borealia appeared in 1764, and this became key in spreading ideas and philosophies across the continent.
There was great mourning across the country with the passing of Queen Frances in 1759, which also meant the end of the House of Wurtemburg in favor of the House of Hapsburg. And in general, Queen Mary is looked on with great disdain by most people in Borealia. She was considered to be high-handed with the colonies and her own people, and outright callous when it came to individual complaints. Some say that if her decisions were not mediated by the Deutsche Diet, there may have been outright rebellion.
The Borealian Revolution
Things officially started to unravel in relations to France. The French had previously claimed area around the southern plains, including the city of Kristallstadt itself. Fearing France's threats of war, Queen Mary offered to give the land directly to French control in 1780. By 1785, this statement had blown up into violent protests all throughout the colony, particularly in the east. And Governor Ortega, unfortunately, could live up to his predecessor. He tried his best to peacefully negotiate with the French and Bavarians, even in the face of Kristallstadt and New Munich insisting on going to war. Where he did give a strong hand turned out to be his undoing. He had a number of seemingly-treasonous newspapers in New Vienna arrested in 1786, an act interpreted as tyranny among the Borealians. This unrest seemed to be confirmation from the perspectives of New Munich and Kristallstadt, who were feeling that Bavaria had sold them out to the French. The rebels were also capitalizing on general unrest in Europe cased by the War of Scandinavian Aggression.
In 1789, Governor Ortega organized a general meeting of the city presidents from across the colony. This plan completely backfired, however, as it gave the radicals from the east the opportunity to reorganize the council as a conspiracy for rebellion. This was the first time the alternate name of "the United Commonwealth of Borealia" was first used, and acknowledged by Algonquia in 1791.
After hearing that Bavaria was willing to capitulate with the rebels, the general council was reconvened in 1792, and voted to dissolve the colony. The first president was elected in 1793, and the Constitution was ratified in 1796. The period form 1785-1792 is usually referred to as the "Borealian Revolution", although not a single shot was ever fired during this time.
During its independence, Borealia has presented itself as the senior member of independent states in Borealia. The New Munich Declaration, issued in 1797, officially declared that all states of Borealia should be free and independent. The commonwealth's involvement in Arcadia, Reme and California have thus far proved their determination to enforce it.
The industrial revolution first appeared soon after its independence, including the invention of the factory in 1793 and the steam engine in 1800. These steam engines are already being added to the navy, in the hopes of becoming a more modernized military in general.
The Norse-Nehilaw War and aftermath
The hopes and goals of the New Munich declaration were put to a test for the first time with the Norse-Nehilaw War. In the face of the disintegrating colonial system, the Scandinavian empire pushed for a resurgence of colonialism with the invasion of Algonquia in 1809. The first attack of this surprise invasion quickly took the capital and routed the native military. The Nehilaw government, forced into exile, reorganized the military into a guerrilla warfare against the Scandinavian colonies.
The news of this disaster struck terror in the general populace of Borealia. Many writers and politicians warned of the prospect of reoccurring colonial rule, and how such foreign could lead to tyranny. In light of this, the Commonwealth redirected their military in Arcadia to attack the Scandinavian colonies, along with additional military aid from Borealia itself. This resulted in a drawn out war from 1809-1813, ending in a stalemate that forced the Scandinavian forces to withdraw.
Scandinavia's economy was greatly drained by the continuous war, forcing them later to sell Arcadia much of their colonial territory in 1831. The results were equally devastating, however, among the New Munich Pact. Algonquia accused Arcadia of secretly working with the Norse against them, and demanded that they be expelled from the pact if reparations are not made. Borealia managed to deal with the problem diplomatically, particularly through a monumental speech by President Moreno in 1825. This forestalled any infighting until the Sachem of Algonquia was overthrown by Pakisimotan's coup d'etat.
Since that time, however, the people of Borealia have remained in constant fear of whether Scandinavia will make another move against the continent. These fears were particularly aroused when Scandinavia and Britannia merged into the Nordic Union in 1819, which added to their colonies all of Britannia's oversees territories. However, this union did not last terribly long, as Britannia rebelled against the Norse to create their own Commonwealth state in 1835. The Britannic Republicans were funded, for the large part, by Borealia. Still, many similar covert missions have been attempted on both sides to thwart the advances of the other one.
The Empire of Mexaca became independent in 1832, and was first led by the career general Hernando Cuauhtémoc. Starting in 1835, he led an impressive offensive that quickly liberated almost all of the European colonies in Lower Borealia. This finally climaxed with the Hamburg-Mexacan War from 1838-1839 over the territory of Belize. Initially, Borealia gave full support to the emperor's campaigns in the hope of including Mexaca into the New Munich pact. However, this diplomacy gave way to a catastrophic scandal. Several journalists in California claimed to discover evidence that Mexaca was planning to invade and conquer Borealia, and this was followed by other rumors that Hernando was a decedent of the last emperor of Hispania. Regardless of whether these rumors were true, this scandal caused the Curia to withdraw support from Mexaca, leading to their defeat at Belize in 1839.
Expansion into Upper Borealia
With the aid of steam shipping, the Commonwealth managed to quickly establish territorial control over the northeastern coast of Borealia. Two brief wars from 1843-1848 ensured complete control over the territory of Alaska, although the native nation of the Kiatagmiut had to be peacefully annexed with their culture preserved. This was very fortunate timing, as the Alaskan Gold Rush of 1849 caused a massive immigrant population to settle in the region.
Taking control of this coastline has allowed Borealia to have almost unchallenged control over the northern half of the Pacific Ocean. Trade was opened with Shun China in 1841, and with the republic of Hawaii in 1845. Relations with Japan was attempted at the same time, but Japan's refusal to acknowledge the New Munich Declaration has made it a tense relationship. However, later Japan accepted an alliance with Borealia as they both expanded into the Pacific in the early 1880s.
Hoping to enforce the New Munich Declaration in the far reaches of the north, Borealia joined with Algonquia to declare war on the Commonwealth of Iceland in 1879. Although the New Munich Pact was in support of this expedition, it quickly turned into the disastrous Winter War lasting from 1879-1880. As so many more people were dying from hypothermia and starvation than actual conflict, both sides agreed to end the conflict with a land exchange in the Treaty of Reykjavik. The Commonwealth and the Sachemate remain on unstable relations with the Nordic Republics.
In 1888, an expedition in the far north of the Yukon disappeared for several months. When it was later discovered, all the bodies had been carefully dismembered, with the name "Jack" written in blood on a tree. It is hypothesized that one member of the party (who exactly is unknown) had some undiagnosed psychopathy. Later that year, a number of unsolved murders began in the Gothic, gas-lit streets of New Vienna against young women, similar in nature to the Jack incident.
in 1890, another expedition investigating the Jack incident accidentally discovered the Northwest Passage. For the next few years until 1894, Borealia and Algonquia worked to create a complete canal to make easy shipping above the continent. It was through this that the small Colony of Kinshasa was made possible.
Incorporation of California
Seeing how impotent France had been for several decades to protect their own colonies, the Curia decided to annex half of California, and establish the rest as the independent Republic of California. This resulted in the French Colonial War from 1828-1834, which partitioned the French colonies between Borealia, Reme and California. This war was the first truly successful implementation of the New Munich declaration, in which all members of the pact properly lent their support for the war. The Republic of California, however, proved to be a very weak entity on its own, and after suffering invasion from Mexaca in 1858 the Curia decided to annex the entirety of the region. This second Californian War lasted from 1861-1863.
This unity among the members of New Munich also led to an economic revolution. Although smaller railroads had been constructed as early as 1832, and in Reme in 1839, the Commonwealth proposed a transcontinental railroad to connect all members of the pact in 1842. After agreements were made with all three countries, the railway was fully built from 1844-1848. A second line was connected exclusively with Algonquia from 1851-1853. This was very useful after the Californian Gold Rush of 1849, which helped establish San Francisco as one of the gold manufacturing capitals of the world.
The transcontinental railroad allowed for ideas and cultures to spread much more quickly across the continent, especially with the Remen Republic. This resulted in a developing a new subculture that aspired to the Roman ideal as superior to the Commonwealth. Known as the Romanesque movement, this culture of young adults worked to establish isolated communities throughout the 1850s, mostly in California and New Austria. Ever since the 1858 Californian Earthquake, when about 200 Romanesque settlements were displaced and never rehoused, the movement has turned to public demonstrations against what they see as an affront against their way of life.
The Romanesque movement climaxed in 1864, when the Curia finally decided to make reforms according to the Romanesque ideals. From there it faded out as a political movement, but remains as a powerful ideology to this day.
The German Colonial War and Aftermath
By 1870, the industrial revolution building up in Borealia began to push out exponentially. Cities with industrialized areas began to be common even as far as the Kiatagmiut in Alaska. But it was at this time that tensions begin to once again arise between the Empire of Mexaca and the Kingdom of Hamburg over Belize. Borealia insisted that the nation should be granted independence, but Hamburg considered it to be a constituent state of their government. An attempted Conference at Nemiscau in 1876 failed to bring any compromise between the two parties. A referendum was held in 1880 for Belize to decide their fate, but both Mexaca and Borealia suspected fraudulent results.
This initially created great tension between Borealia and the Remen Republic, as Reme had invested their cotton exportation with Hamburg through Belize. Reme almost resigned from the New Munich Pact altogether, but under pressure from the Andean Monarchy they agreed to support Mexaca in 1881.
At long last, this resulted in the Great Hamburger War from 1883-1887, also known as the German Colonial War or the Second War of the Grand Coalition. Mexaca and Borealia invaded Belize with the support of Andea, while Andea and Emereldia invaded Kuba with support from Reme. Borealia also took this opportunity to aid the Timor Sultanate and Japan to annex some of Hamburg's territories in the Pacific, leading ultimately to the Territory and State of Australia. Although these invasions defeated the Hamburger forces on every front, it brought about mixed results. At last, Pskov decided to join the war by invading Hamburg directly, thus threatening the existence of their entire nation. Seeing their ally in such danger, however, brought Muscovy and Bavaria to aid Hamburg and defeat Pskov in a climactic battle at Konigsburg. After seeing Pskov's defeat at Konigsburg, both Andea and Reme pulled out of the war, and soon after Borealia and Japan signed an agreement with Hamburg over the Pacific.
The aftermath of the Hamburger War saw the complete control of Borealia over the Pacific, with respect to their allies in the Pacific Protection Sphere. This transition of focus in Pacific affairs has diverted much public attention, but in 1896 the Curia proposed an extended alliance with United Germany at the Treaty of San Diego.
In 1883, a group of extreme Borealianists in the regency council of the Kiatagmiut announced the Marmtilleq Declaration, which hoped to extend the New Munich Declaration to native peoples in the Pacific. This was approved by the Curia in 1884, and has since been used as a moral compass in Borealian expansion in Oceania. The Curia later attempted to get involved in the Dutch Colonial War in 1894, but quickly pulled out as this was seen as a clear violation of the Marmtilleq Declaration.
When the First Sino-Japanese broke out in 1895, the Curia made the decision to join on Japan's side and also fund the Republican Rebels in China, seeing as China's attempted invasion of Korea disrupted the Pacific trade network.
Colonial and Provisional Governments
As the province of New Galicia, and later New Austria, the colony was treated as a subdivision of the greater Californian colony. As such, it was administered by a regional council at New Vienna. This council would elect a governor from among themselves, who would then serve for life. Beneath them, every city and village had a local city council with an elected president. As the colony grew very quickly, these local councils became very powerful as they controlled all the land in the metropolitan area. The regional council acted as the city government for New Vienna. The main courthouse of New Vienna was completed in 1761.
When disparate cultural differences put a strain between the conservative northern and radical eastern cities, governor Ortega attempted a more legislative approach. in 1789, he called the presidents of all the major cities in New Austria to come together in New Vienna to discuss their grievances. After two years of deadlock, however, the eastern presidents walked out and formed a new government in New Munich. This rebellion, claiming the entirety of the plains, referred to themselves as a new government known as "the United Commonwealth of Borealia". After the end of the Borealian Revolution, and the end of colonial rule in general, this name stuck and the official name of the new state.
Under the ConstitutionThe Constitution, drafted in 1793 and ratified in 1796, outlined a more reasonable independent government for Borealia, and clearly listed the unalienable rights of its citizens. The power of the city councils was officially expanded to act as provincial governments over Borealia's divisions. The council of Presidents, now known as the Curia Borealia, meet regularly as the leading legislature over the state, and elect a General President among themselves every six years. A second house of senators are elected directly from the common people, and act as an advising staff for the Curia.
The standing military is always fixed in the constitution as 3% of the population, not counting local militias. Thus, the current size of the military is approximately 54,000 men.
As California had been formally administered by the French, their cities had to individually organize councils, the presidents of which were straight away admitted into the Curia. The republic of California, although an independent state, was administered by a committee of the Curia known as the Californian Directorate (a separate entity from the Californian Republic)
The Kiatagmiut Band has remained governed by their original government, which is administered by a governor appointed by the Curia.
Under the Union of West Borealia
After many years of criticism from the Romanesque movement, the Commonwealth came to realize that the state was too large to manage from single, regional government. So in conjunction with New Bavaria, the Curia organized a higher federal government that will administer over both regions. This federal government will thus become the new Curia Borealia. The original commonwealth was divided into seventeen provinces of varying size and population, based mainly on cultural and political divisions. These provinces, administered over by regency councils, would elect a governor among themselves who would report directly to the federal Curia. A new flag for the Union was designed in 1896, and replaced the old flag in 1898.
The seventeen provinces are illustrated below:
The Territory of Australia was ceded to Borealia after the end of the Hamburger War in 1887. A port city of Dandiri (OTL Brisbane) was built in 1891 to provide a central location for Pacific trade. An irrigation system in the outback was built from 1889-1893 to allow for expansion westward. As many of the native population being given rights were Muslim, this caused a lot of German colonists to migrate into the outback for better opportunities. In 1895, it was given the rights and privileges of a state.
The Borealian Maritime Territory was founded in 1890 by the Borealian Navy, as a continuous stretch of water and small islands in the central Pacific to maintain a continuous tactical advantage there. By 1895, it encompassed every island from Palau to Fiji, and from New Caledonia to Midway. Many of these islands were sold by the Dutch during the Dutch Colonial War in 1894, and the Solomon Islands still maintain sovereign control by the Japanese Empire. In 1891, Borealia and Rome declared a joint protection over the Republic of Hawaii. The lime green states in this map are members of the Pacific Protection Sphere.
The Colony of Kinshasa is a small colony in the mouth of the Congo River in central Africa. After the canal in the northwest passage was completed in 1894, the Curia authorized a large corporation to supply the colony and employ the African natives to work there.
List of Heads of State
|Name||Born||Term Beginning||Term End||Portrait|
|Juan Detend||1706 (San Francisco)||February 15, 1735 (appointed)||January 6, 1751 (infection, age 45)|
|Gaspar de Portolo||1716 (New Galicia)||January 10, 1751 (elected)||July 21, 1785 (stroke, age 69)|
|Francesco de Ortega||1752 (New Vienna)||August 2, 1785 (elected)||September 3, 1793 (resigned, age 41)|
|Name||Born||Term Beginning||Term End||Portrait|
|Peter Lasuen||1754 (Fraznacken)||November 12, 1793||December 10, 1805|
|Josef de Arrillaga||1759 (New Vienna)||September 4, 1806||August 14, 1817|
|Father Franz Diego Moreno||1761 (Santiago)||September 4, 1817||December 12, 1829|
|Habel Sterns||1778 (Kristallstadt)||August 12, 1830||March 13, 1842|
|Joseph Marion de Arista||1785 (New Vienna)||September 7, 1842||March 12, 1854|
|John Neely Johnson||1791 (Fraznacken)||September 7, 1854||March 12, 1866|
|Dennis Valiente||1810 (San Francisco)||September 7, 1866||March 12, 1878|
|Takoda Goede||1824 (San Diego)||September 7, 1878||March 12, 1890|
|Franz Arbol||1831 (San Francisco)||September 7, 1890||June 23, 1900|
|Clems Joven||1836 (San Francisco)||July 1, 1900||March 12, 1902|
|Gorge Pardee||1848 (San Diego)||September 7, 1902||March 12, 1914|
|Eugene Schmidt||1855 (New Munich)||September 7, 1914||March 12, 1926|
|John Afognak||1868 (Marmtilliq)||September 7, 1926||March 12, 1938|
|Henry Brucke||1880 (New Munich)||September 7, 1938||March 12, 1962|
|Robert Mangut||1905 (San Francisco)||September 7, 1962||March 12, 1974|
|George Lasuen||1911 (New Vienna)||September 7, 1974||Incumbent|
The colony was entirely populated by Hispanic settlers since its first formation in 1570. After the annexation from Bavaria in 1751, a large wave of German immigrants flooded in throughout the 1750s and 1760s. Seeing the great tension between these ethnic groups, Governor Portolo separated the settlers between Hispanics in the north, and Germans in the east. As the following generation between these peoples learned both Spanish and German, these two cultures began fusing together into a distinctive, Borealian one. The term "Borealian" as a demonym was first coined in a novel by Martin de la Venn in 1760. Today, the main languages in Borealia are distinct branches of Spanish and German, with many loan words mixed between. New children commonly have Germanic names, with Hispanic surnames.
Even after these cultures merged, however, there is still many differences between the society of the northern forests and the society of the eastern plains. The northern provinces tend to be much more conservative on all issues, while the eastern provinces tend to be more liberal.
The culture of Alaska is a blurred mix between enterprising Borealians and native Kiatagmiut people. In California, the culture is more heavily French influenced, and in general the people there have ideas and cultures which have been described as distinctly un-Borealian.
There are also a few Salish tribes that still live in the area; however, they are not considered citizens of the state and are not counted in each census. The Romanesque movement considers this a sign of exploitation, however, and have demanded that the natives be counted in any legislative action.
Population to date
- 1750: 800,000
- 1760: 1.1 million
- 1770: 1.2 million
- 1780: 1.4 million
- 1790: 1.5 million
- 1800: 1.6 million
- 1810: 2.6 million
- 1820: 4.3 million
- 1830: 7.0 million
- 1840: 11.5 million
- 1850: 18.2 million
- 1860: 30.5 million
- 1870: 33.7 million
- 1880: 37.2 million
- 1890: 41 million
Borealianism is a branch of anthropology that first appeared in 1770s in New Vienna, and quickly took off with the spread of printed material. This philosophy holds that humans born on different continents, having developed under radically-different climates, are predisposed towards different modes of thinking. So while people of Borealia are predestined for a culture of practicality, generosity, and equality, people from Europe are considered to be bred for exploitation, greed, and imperialism. Some branches of Borealianism attempt to identify the identities of other continents, such as Africa and Hisperia, but so far none of these theories have dominated. The main corollary of this theory is an insatiable drive for total independence, believing that Europe no longer "deserves" to hold colonies.
Romanticism first came over with German immigrants in the 1780s, and has likewise spread across the continent. In general, however, the New World version of Romanticism is a clear twist on the German original, with many elements of Borealianism mixed in. Still, some publications for "pure" Romanticism found in the north, particularly Santiago, until about the 1820s.
The Romanesque movement, popular mostly among the younger generation, first appeared in the late 1840s and has been most prevalent in California and New Vienna. These people consider themselves a distinct counter culture to the philosophy of Borealianism, seeing the ideals of the Roman Republic as superior to the rampant exploitation seen in the commonwealth. Thus, they emphasize non-violence and equality for all, leading to many of them establishing isolated communities in the wilderness. They also push for equal representation of native Borealians in the commonwealth. While this movement has gained much momentum, there are still many people who distrust their motives. The movement, in turn, distrusts the government after many communities were carelessly displaced after the 1858 Californian Earthquake.
Starting in the 1870s, the previous philosophical movements quickly splintered apart into hundreds of smaller factions, and some newer ideas merged with older ones. These competing schools of thought, although diverse, continue to hold a common set of basic beliefs about the future of the Commonwealth, particularly in the fields of science and technology. These philosophies collectively contribute to an overall attitude of constant progression, particularly among the younger generations.
The main industrial centers of Borealia are located along the eastern face of the Klamath Mountains, especially near New Vienna. Companies working to manufacture carpentry, textiles, and metalwork are mostly located in this area, along with many industrialized mining companies. With the introduction of the industrial revolution in in the 1790s, factories and other industrial theories began sweeping across the country, particularly in the plains for processing bison. After the steam engine was invented in 1799, this has been appearing as a common mechanism across many factories.
The main source of economy across the country is the processing of buffalo. This commodity was first discovered by Johann Baptist de Fages in 1766, and to this day his company in Kristallstadt monopolizes the entire industry. It first became very popular among people throughout the colony, and later was accepted internationally with Algonquia. This created a direct trading network up the Eastern Mountains and across the northern forests to connect Kristallstadt with the Nehilaw. Some consider this to be the main reason why Algonquia accepted Borealian independence so quickly. A small bison trade is also kept over seas with the Kiatagmiut Bands in Alaska.
Publication businesses are also extremely popular, as both newspapers and pamphlets have been sold across the continent since 1764. The main recipients of these currently have been Arcadia, Vineland and California. Along with literature, other unofficial frontier trading is also popular throughout both the French and German colonies. From 1773-1775, a massive gold rush created a lot of new settlements around the Adelheid Lakes, but so far very few precious minerals have been found in that area. This rumor first appeared in a small newspaper in New Vienna, probably picked up from some Nehilaw traders.
Although not much came of this gold rush, a real discovery of gold was made in Alaska and California almost simultaneously in 1849. The massive gold deposits found in California alone quickly dwarfed the buffalo industry of Kristallstadt by 1860. In 1872, the regency council of Flaschland ruled strict regulations on the hunting of buffalo, which has caused the decline of the industry ever since.
The transcontinental railroad, completed in 1848, has helped to establish much faster trade between Borealia and her allies.
The Pacific Protection Sphere has allowed much more free and open trade to progress across all those involved in that region, centered around the city of Dandiri in Australia.
The various arts of Borealia, particularly architecture, is generally considered to be behind the rest of the world. Much of the architecture from before the Colonial War is almost medieval in design, and some of the older buildings still standing have been converted into museums. After the reforms of Governor Portolo, The architecture was pushed forward to reflect a more baroque style, which much of New Vienna it maintains to this day. However, with the disappearance of baroque style from Europe, the constructions of Borealia are once again out of date. Still, the more impressive buildings such as the University of New Vienna are well maintained, and are considered some of the most ornate examples of baroque style in the world.
There was a brief revolution in artwork throughout the 1760s, which has unfortunately died out after the Revolution. It was primarily led by Johnn de la Franz, most famous for constructing the bronze statue of Queen Frances in 1761. That statue still stands in the main square of New Vienna as one of the greatest icons of the state.
After native Borealians were made citizens of the Commonwealth, much aspects of native culture began to mix within the Borealian culture, particularly in art and music. This led to another artistic revolution in the 1870s.
Science and Technology
The University of New Vienna
The University of New Vienna was constructed between 1752 and 1761. It originally began as a military academy, but after the academic wings were completed it began producing new generations of intellectuals and engineers. It was here that Borealianism as a scientific study was first developed. The first prototype steam engines were constructed in 1786, and in 1800 a steamship was first used to sail up the Amerigo River, to the astonishment of passersby. Since then, The navy has been redesigned to include steam engines on all ships. Theories on electromagnetism were first discovered in 1785. This led to the development of electrical devices for entertainment in 1793, and ultimately to the invention of the telegraph in 1801. At first, the telegraph was used only for fast communication between public buildings in New Vienna, as stringing wires across the country seemed ludicrous to most. But as resources expanded, the telegraph later became the primary means of communication across the continent.
Timeline of Inventions and Discoveries
- 1764: the printing press is introduced
- 1765: the newspaper is invented
- 1770: The Great Comet of 1770 is measured and cataloged
- 1771: first publication of a Borealian theory of anthropology
- 1785: new theories appear on the nature of electromagnetism
- 1786: prototype steam engines are constructed
- 1791: new economic theories contribute to the industrial revolution
- 1793: small electrical toys for sound and light appear
- 1794: first factory built in New Munich
- 1799: first steam-powered factory
- 1800: steamships constructed
- 1801: the telegraph is invented.
- 1809: the telegraph is used for public broadcasting
- 1811: The Great Comet of 1811 is measured and cataloged
- 1816: the camera is invented
- 1829: the locomotive is invented
- 1841: the telephone is invented
- 1857: oil as an energy resource is hypothesized
- 1859: first oil well is built in San Francisco
- 1867: first oil-driven motor built
- 1869: petroleum-base factories built
The New Munich Pact
In 1797, the New Munich Declaration stated that all nations on the continent of Borealia should be free and independent from European intervention. In order to enforce this, the state is hoping to establish close alliances with all the current independent states on the continent, and pool their resources to liberate all other colonies and dependencies. These mutual defense alliances are collectively known as the New Munich Pact.
- The Commonwealth of Borealia
- The Algonquian Sachemate
- The Reman Republic
- The Federal Republic of Arcadia
- The Empire of Mexaca
Pacific Protection Sphere
Outside of the continent, the Commonwealth has endeavored to establish a network of alliances across the Pacific Ocean for the purpose of ensuring ease of trade and exploration within that hemisphere.
- The Kingdom of Ayutthaya
- The Kingdom of Korea
- The Republic of Hawaii
- The Empire of China
- The Empire of Mexaca
- The Nihon Theocracy
- The Andean Monarchy
- The Kingdom of Emereldia
- The Timor Sultanate
Other Important Relations
- The Crown-Union of Germany is seen as the motherland by most people in Borealia, especially among conservatives. A very tight economic thread remains with the Germans, and even the currency between them remains the same. Although Bavaria has denounced the New Munich Declaration, it is nonetheless one of its strongest political friends in Europe.
- The Kingdom of Aragon is the most friendliest of European allies, almost as an honorary member of the New Munich Pact. Its economic and political support for the state has proved to be very helpful in the face of threat from other Europeans.
- The Kingdom of France is favorable economically. There had been some border disputes throughout the 1780s and 1790s, but that has since been resolved. Since that time, France has shown no interest in their colonies whatsoever, allowing Borealia to assume a position as the new ruler over the Californian territory.
- The Duchy of Oldenburg has no direct connection with the commonwealth, aside from a couple of colonies in Newfoundland that have yet to make any contact with Borealia. However, it has condemned the New Munich Declaration with Bavaria, and thereby alienating themselves from Borealian affairs.
- The Britannic Empire was initially in a state of war with Borealia during the Arcadian Revolution. After it was annexed by the Nordic Union, the Commonwealth managed to fund the Republican rebels in Britannia to overthrow the Norse and establish an independent republic.
- The Nordic Union is in a state of a cold war with Borealia. After the stalemate in the Norse-Nehilaw War, Scandinavia has made it their vendetta to thwart or crush the efforts of the commonwealth at every stage. Borealia, in turn, continues to run their covert operations to match every front the Scandinavians offer.