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The Bolshevik Party was the founding and ruling political party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). The Bolsheviks were the sole governing party of the RSFSR until 1919 when the White Army captured Moscow at the end of the Russian Civil War. The party was founded in 1912 by Vladimir Lenin and seized power in the aftermath of the October Revolution of 1917.


In 1912, Lenin left the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party to form his own faction at the Prague Party Conference in the absence of his Menshevik rivals. Of the twenty-something organizations represented, the Bolsheviks felt they had the most significance.