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Bolivia, officially Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country in central South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay and the United American Republic to the south, and Chile and Peru to the west.
Prior to European colonization, the Bolivian territory was a part of the Inca Empire, which was the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was called "Upper Peru" or "Charcas" and was under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of Spain's South American colonies. After declaring independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on August 6, 1825. Bolivia has struggled through periods of political instability, dictatorships, war, economic woes and in 1983, global nuclear war.
Following Doomsday, Hernán Siles Zuazo assumed temporary emergency power until the crisis of the global nuclear war had passed. Meanwhile Bolivian cardinals met in Brasilia, Brazil on November 2, 2009 to discuss the state of the Catholic Church in post-Doomsday South America.
By the late 1980s the emergency powers are gradually rescinded.
In 1990, the Andean Nations Pact (PAN) becomes the Andean Union (UA), a free market agreement between Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. All these nations are poor but all of them had had some sort of functional democracy for at least 9 years, in contrast to other South American countries. The creation of the AU marked a period of economic growth for Bolivia.
Though Bolivia never entered the Andean Conflict (a period of civil war in Peru, along with a border conflict with Ecuador), it did sent aid into Peru and pariticpated in 1998 AU demand for a cease fire.
In 2003 an terrorist attack on a Petrobras refinery on Santa Cruz de La Sierra, Bolivia, killed 80 technicians (both Brazilian and Bolivian) and injured another 142, cutting half of the gas supply to Brazil. The attack was credited to "Unión Nacional Indigenista", led by Evo Morales. Morales denied the attack and claimed that UNI is a peaceful organization. The attack was, in fact, staged by the FARC in order to destabilize international relations in South America and prevent the formation of the South American Confederation, as further investigations established.
The attacks, however, failed to discourage Bolivia in joining the SAC. In 2004 the member states of the Andean Union agreed that their organization should be absorbed into the new South American Confederation. Bolivia thus became a founding member of the SAC.
Bolivia is a democratic republic, divided into nine departments.
- Beni (Trinidad)
- Chuquisaca (Sucre)
- Cochabamba (Cochabamba)
- La Paz (La Paz)
- Oruro (Oruro)
- Pando (Cobija)
- Potosí (Potosí)
- Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz de la Sierra)
- Tarija (Tarija)
Bolivia's geography is varied from the peaks of the Andes in the west, to the eastern lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin.
Bolivia is a developed country by post-Doomsday standard. The economic prosperity that happened to South America in the post-Doomsday world has made it one of the more wealthier and prosperous nations on Earth. Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry and mining and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals especially tin and lithium and natural gas.
With the breakdown of northern hemisphere industrial countries and depending on the imports of goods from those countries, Bolivia had to undergo a fast and unplanned industrialization process. This put it into an advantegous position once world trade increased in the 1990s, though its capabilities do not match that of the larger nations of South America.
One of the main problems in Bolivia is the geographical barrier of Andes Mountains that makes it difficult to improve the roads, railroad access and electrical grid. A network of pipelines in being built to connect to the United American Republic and Chile, the main consumers of Bolivia's natural gas.
Pre-Doomsday, Colombian entrepreneurs had been buying Bolivian coca and processed it into cocaine to sell in first world, chiefly the United States. Pablo Escobar was one of the more important drug dealers who traded in Bolivia. Doomsday led to collapse of the world drug trade almost overnight. Recently, however, League of Nations agents have notice a return of the drug trade, but this time geared to markets in the Pacific.
The Bolivian population, estimated at 9 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans and to a lesser extent Asians and Africans. The main language spoken is Spanish, although the Aymara and Quechua languages are also common. The large number of different cultures within Bolivia has contributed greatly to a wide diversity in fields such as art, cuisine, literature and music.
Bolivia is serviced by three institutions of higher education: Universidad Tecnica de Oruro, Universidad Catolica Boliviana and Nur University.
Association football (soccer) and basketball are two of the most popular sports in Bolivia, both with professional leagues. Bolivia is a member of FIFA and the Confederation Sudamericana de Futbol in South America (CONMEBOL).