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Bohemia (Twilight of a New Era)

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Bohemia
Čechy (Stát)
— State Austria-Hungary
Timeline: Twilight of a New Era
Flag of Czechoslovakia Coat of arms of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Civil State Flag
Location Bohemia A-H (TNE)
Location Bohemia

Motto
Pravda vítězí (Czech)
("Truth prevails")

Anthem "Kde domov můj? (State Anthem)"
Capital
(and largest city)
Prague
Other cities Brno, Ostrava, and Plzeň
Language
  official
 
Czech
  others German
Religion
  main
 
Secular state
  others Roman Catholic, Hussite, and Protestant
Ethnic groups
  main
 
Czech
  others German
Demonym Czech or Bohemian
Government Parliamentary democratic State
  legislature Czech National Council
Representative King-Emperor Guvernér
State government Minister-President and State Council
Established 1920
Currency koruna
Time zone Central European Time (UTC+01:00)
  summer Central European Summer Time (UTC+02:00)

Bohemia (Čechy, also called Czech state) is a federal state of Austria-Hungary. It is bordered by Poland and the states of Silesia, West Galicia, Slovakia, German Austria and German Bohemia.

Government

Bohemia (or Czech State) is parliamentary representative democratic state, according to the State Constitution is organized as follows:

  • The State Governor (Guvernér) as head of state. He is named for a term of seven years, with a two-term limit, by the Emperor-King on advised of the Czech National Council. The Guvernér appoints the government and accepts its resignation, appoints high-ranking civil servants, and university functionaries
  • Minister-President, along the State Council, are the head of government and state administration. They are responsible to the National Assembly, and named by the Guvernér. If parliament rejected a government bill, the cabinet could unanimously refer the proposed law to referendum. Executive power is exercised by the governments, both local and state level.
  • State legislative power is vested in both the government and the Czech National Council (Česká národní rada). The Czech National Council, is bicameral. The Chamber of Deputies passed a confidence vote on the government. The Chamber of Deputies consisted of 150 members elected for 6 years. The Senate consisted of 75 members elected for 8 years. Suffrage was exercised by all citizens, of both sexes, over the age of 21 for elections to the lower chamber; and over the age of 26 for elections to the senate. Candidates for the lower chamber had to be at least 30 years of age; and for the senate, at least 45 years of age.
  • The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Politics

The main parties are the following:

  • Czech State Rights Democrats (Česká státoprávní demokracie, CSD), conservative party, renamed in 19XX the Czech National Democrats (Česká národní demokracie) in conservative. It is characterized by national radicalism and economic liberalism. The CSD became the party of big business, banking, and industry.
  • Czech People's Party (Česká strana lidová, ČSL) right-wing catholic party. The party is a fusion of several Catholic parties, groups, and labor unions. It espouses Christian moral principles and the social encyclicals of Pope Leo XIII.
  • Czech Party of Farmers and Peasants (Česká strana zemědělského a malorolnického lidu, CSZML), the main agrarian party. The party is the principal voice for the agrarian population, representing mainly peasants with small and medium-sized farms. This combined with support for progressive social legislation with a democratic outlook.
  • Czech National Social Party (Česká strana národně sociální, CSNS) is a civic nationalist center-left party. It rejects class struggle and promoted nationalism and social liberalism. its membership derives primarily from the lower middle class, civil servants, and the intelligentsia. The party platform rested on the recalled social traditions of Hussitism and Taboritism, but it was also a program of "collectivizing by means of development, surmounting of class struggle by national discipline, moral rebirth and democracy as the conditions of socialism, a powerful popular army, etc.
  • Czech Social Democratic Party (Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD)
  • Czech Communist Party (Česká komunistická strana, CSK)
  • German Party (German: Partei der Deutschen), a center right partty representing interests of the German minority.
  • German Democratic Freedom Party (Deutsche Demokratische Freiheitspartei, DDFP) liberal and socio liberal party. It is part of a network of sister parties in Silesia and German-Bohemia.

Administrative division

In Bohemia the first administrative leve are the counties (Czech: župa) and statutory cities ((statutární město). Each province has its own county council. In the statutory cities powers are executed by the city council. The counties are divided in districts (okresy, singular okres). At lower level are the boroughs (obvod or část) with their own elected councils and executive Borough Committee. The statutory cities accomplish tasks on an intermediate level of administration and therefore are not incorporated into the districts but form urban districts in their own right

Counties (with official designation):

  • Prague (Župa I)
  • Tabor (Župa II)
  • Pardubice (Župa III)
  • Mladá Boleslav (Župa IV)
  • Louny (Župa V)
  • Plezen (Župa VI)
  • České Budějovice (Župa VII)
  • Jihlava (Župa VIII)
  • Brno (Župa IX)
  • Olomouc (Župa X)
  • Uherské Hradiště (Župa XI)
  • Ostrava (Župa XII)
  • Tesin (Župa XIII)

The statutory cities

  • Prague
  • Plzen
  • Brno

Economy

Industrialization in Czech State had substantially reduced the relative importance of agriculture in the economy. Agriculture consists primarily of small to mid-size family farms with an efficiency on a par with most of Europe, after the land reform. The Land Control Act of 1921 called for the expropriation of all estates exceeding 1.5 square km of arable land or 2.5 square km of land in general (5 square km to be the absolute maximum). Redistribution was to proceed on a gradual basis; owners would continue in possession in the interim, and compensation was offered.

The Bohemia’'s strong industrial tradition dates back to the 19th century, when Bohemia and Moravia were the economic heartland of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Czech lands produced a majority (about 70%) of all industrial goods in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, some of which were almost monopolistic.

At the creation of the Czech State, it had inherited 70 to 80 percent of all the industry of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, including the china and glass industries and the sugar refineries; more than 40 percent of all its distilleries and breweries; the Škoda Works (Škodovy závody) of Plzeň, which produced armaments, locomotives, automobiles, and machinery; and the Spolana chemical plant in Neratovice, and the Witkowitzer Bergbau- und Hüttengewerkschaft of Ostrava, the largest iron and steel works in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.

Bohemia has significant quantities of coal and lignite. Hard coal suitable for extraction is found in the Ostrava coalfields and near Kladno and Plzen. Brown coal and lignite deposits are located at Ceske Budejovice and Modry Kamen. Iron ore continues to be mined near Prague and Plzen. Lead and zinc ores are found at Kutna Hora and Pribram in central Bohemia, but in insignificant quantities. Additional mineral resources include graphite near Ceske Budejovice, and kaolin near Plzen.

Transport and communications

Bohemia's railroad system both for cargo and passenger in its territory is manged by Czech Railways (ČD, public company), that also serves neighboring Silesia and German-Bohemia. Air transports is serviced by Czechoslovak State Airlines (Československé státní aerolinie, CSA).

There is an extensive highways and road system, these are federal (Reichsstrassen, and Reichsautobahn) and State (Landesstrassen and Gemeindestrassen).

The Czech Radio (Český rozhlas, ČRo) is the licensed public radio broadcaster of the State. The Czech News Agency (Česká tisková kancelář, ČTK), is a national public service news agency. The CTK was created by a collaborating contract of regional services of the k.k. Telegraphen-Korrespondenz-Bureau, the former State news agency. CTK publishes in Czech, Slovak, and German.


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