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The Territory of Bioko, commonly known simply as Bioko, is an unincorporated territory of the Union of New Netherland located in Central Africa. Bioko includes two major islands (Annabon and Bioko) in the Gulf of Guinea, and a mainland territory (Rio Muni). New Netherland acquired the region from Spain in 1883 (becoming the only non-European nation to have a claim in Africa) and was organized into a territory in 1898.
The Portuguese became the first Europeans to discover the region, with Fernão do Pó claiming the territory for Portugal. Aside from British and Dutch ventures in the region, the Portuguese would retain control of Annabon, Bioko (also known as "Fernando Po"), and Rio Muni until ceding the regions to Spain in 1778. Spanish administration and colonization was limited, due in part to disease and the abolition of the slave trade.
By the 1800s, dissidence within the Spanish Empire proved beneficial for New Netherland's imperial ambitions. Beginning in 1883, President Hamilton Fish began discussions for the purchase of the Spanish East Indies. While not originally included in the areas of interest, Spain offered to sell their claims in the Gulf of Guinea. Fished accepted the offer, and the region was included in what would become the largest territorial purchase in New Netherlander history. Many New Netherlanders supported the purchase, and doing so pushed the nation into the Scramble for Africa.
Much like the Spanish before them, New Netherlander control remained limited, only organizing the territory in 1898. In 1900, a treaty with France help finalize the border of Rio Muni. Efforts to colonize the territory became more successful by the early 1900s, with the establishment of cacao plantations and the gradual industrialization of the territory. Hopes for new job opportunities helped to encourage more emigration to the territory by New Netherlanders and other White-settlers. Today, the territory has one of the largest non-native population densities in Africa.