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The Bellinsgauzenian–Santiagano War (known as the Bellinsgauzenia War in Santiago, as the Antarctic War in Chile, and as the Santiago War in Bellinsgauzenia and Yekaterinia) was a significant conflict on Antarctica, fought primarily between the nations of Santiago and Bellinsgauzenia.
Bellinsgauzenia was reinforced by its ally Yekaterinia, another former Russian state. In 1940, the people of Yekaterinia voted to federate into Bellinsgauzenia, and become an Oblast; which was largely due to the close relationship which was developed by this war. Though Bellinsgauzenia had no other official allies; it received financial and matériel support from the Axis Powers and their associated states.
Other support came in the form of foreign volunteers - primarily ethnic Russians and pro-Fascists in other Antarctic Nations (particularly Byrdia, Rossland and New Devon); but there were also volunteers from as far as the United States and Europe (mostly Russian White émigrés)
Santiago's primary ally in the War was its historic ally, the South American nation of Chile. Despite an unstable domestic situation, the Chilean Military (especially the Navy) were deployed in force during the War, particularly in the Bay Theater.
Santiago's Armed Forces were reinforced by hundreds of Spanish Republican refugees, who had been granted full amnesty and citizenship after their defeat in the Spanish Civil War. For a time, it appeared that Norway would also align itself with Santiago, due to the close relationship between Santiago and the Norwegian colony of Maudland; but on April 9th, 1940, Norway was drawn into World War II, and it became clear that Norway would not enter Santiago's war.
Argentina also provided Santiago with some support, but was unwilling to declare war, due to its close alliances with both Santiago and Bellinsgauzenia.
Though Santiago did receive some foreign volunteers, these were much less numerous than Bellinsgauzenia's.