Belgium is a constituent country of the Republic of the Netherlands. The country is bordered by Prussia to the east, France to the south, and the Dutch constituent countries of Flanders and Holland to the north, and Luxembourg to the southeast.
The failed French Republic annexed much of what is today the southern Netherlands, and was conquered by the Dutch during the French Civil War. As a result, tensions rose between the Catholic, French-speaking populace of the southern Netherlands and the Protestant, Dutch-speaking people in the north. The breaking point was finally reached on October 4, 1830, when the southern provinces declared their independence as the Kingdom of Belgium. The movement was almost successful, but a successful Dutch military campaign, which came to be known as the Ten Days' Campaign, finally crushed the rebellion.
As per the Treaty of Brussels ending the revolt, the Netherlands would decentralize into constituent countries. Belgium would be one of these countries. The Dutch-speaking northern provinces of the southern Netherlands were soon split from Belgium as a new constituent country.
The Industrial Revolution would begin in Belgium, bringing the area industrialization and great economic prosperity. However, in the decades after the Industrial Revolution, Flanders would overtake Belgium in industry and become the more economically successful region.