The Governor-General is the official head of government and head of state of all the Commonwealth States in Germany, which include Bavaria, Austria, Venezia, Saxony, Swabia, Brandenburg, and Pomerania. The current office can be traced to that of the President, a predecessor established in the eighteenth century following civil war, and disestablished following a revolution. The nineteenth century form of the Chancellery was established in the late 1790s, and continued to be an office primarily centered around the legislature. Once the monarchy was abolished and the Chancellery went with it, the modern executive office of the Governor-General was established.


The office of President was established in 1775 after a long period of war and instability in the Kingdom of Bavaria. A combination of the Spanish War, Austrian Revolt, and the invasion of Frederick von Croÿ-Habsburg brought the country to its knees, and brought out a fear and anger Bavarians have never seen before. Increasing amounts of Austrian-Bavarian tension, brewing since the 1650s, also caused turmoil in the country. These tensions created an admittedly incompetent Deutsche Diet, itself a new, untested institution, and caused many people to lose faith in the fractured legislature. It is only in 1768 that the modern Deutsche Diet came into play and the notion of a parliamentary leader was entertained. The Crown-Union of Germany was founded in 1769 and essentially federalized Bavaria and all of its realms, removing Bavarian suzerainty and making a national legislature even more important than ever before.

Now swolen with Austrian, Bavarian, Italian, Saxon, Brandenburger, and Pomeranian politicians, the Diet was in need of a leader-type figure. No one wanted a reprise of the abandonment and desolation that plagued the Diet in 1759, so various parliamentarians grouped together and agreed that a single figure leading and supporting the parliament is required to keep it running, and thus, keep Bavaria a healthy, impervious nation of prosperity and peace.

Working over the course of four years, from 1771 to 1775, the Deutsche Diet developed the position of the Präsident and installed measures regulating the office in an effort to avoid a tyranny. Similarly, the parliamentarians hoped to craft an influential, stable position that would give coherence and power to the Diet.

The first elections were held on March 20, and the Leipzig-native Gregory Hartingen was elected as the first President of the Deutsche Diet.

Despite its enthusiastic creation, the office of the President was ultimately abolished in 1790 after violent uprisings tore Bavaria apart. The first and only President, Gregory Hartingen, was kidnapped by extremists and later killed. From 1790 to 1796, the office was vacant, with de jure parliamentary leadership being exercised by Queen Mary I. However, after legislative and executive reforms, the office was re-established as the Chancellery (led by a Chancellor) in 1796.

The Chancellery then led a relatively peaceful, democratic period in Bavaria's history. The country itself was federalized and largely democratized since the office's first creation in the mid-eighteenth century. From approximately 1800 to 1879, the Chancellor oversaw legislative peace, a break from the war-torn years of yore. The country was indeed in peace, but wage inequality and industrialization created cracks in the otherwise prosperous consensus. By the 1860s, popular opinion was hugely against things such as manufacturing, automation, industrialization, wage abuse, and worker treatment. As it became clear neither the Chancellor nor the Diet could do anything about these demographic and social ills, both were dissolved by King Franz-Victor in 1876.

Once the ensuing Revolution died down towards the late 1880s and 1890s, the office of the Chancellor once more presided over a peaceable time in Bavaria. After the abolition of the monarchy in 1879, the office of the Chancellor shifted from legislative leader to executive commander, filling the gap left by an absent King.

The most recent manifestation of the office of Chancellor is that of Governor-General, who is executive commander of all Commonwealth States, of which corresponds to all Bavarian territory prior to German Unification.

List of Präsidents

  • Gregory Hartingen (1775 - 1790)
    • ​Born in 1726, Leipzig, Bavaria
    • Monarch: Mary I
  • Office Vacant (1790 - 1796)
    • Monarch: Mary I

List of Chancellors (1796 - 1879)

Key: (M) = Marian Liberal; (R) = Rudolphine Conservative

  • Klaude Innsberg (M)(1796 - 1807)
    • Monarch: Mary I
  • Marcel Neierman (M)(1807 - 1814)
    • Monarch: Mary I (until 1812)
    • Monarch: Franz-Hector
  • Eric Dietrich (M)(1814 - 1816)
    • Monarch: Franz-Hector
  • Magnus von Eggenberg (M)(1816 - 1822)
    • Monarch: Franz-Hector
  • Eric Dietrich (M)(1822 - 1829)
    • Monarch: Franz-Hector (until 1826)
    • Monarch: Franz-Rudolph
  • Karl Dreher (M)(1829)
    • Monarch: Franz-Rudolph
  • Franz-Maria Jungerforst (R)(1829 - 1839)
    • Monarch: Franz-Rudolph
  • Friedrich Baderman (R)(1839 - 1844)
    • Monarch: Franz-Rudolph
  • Frederick van Leuster  (M)(1844 - 1849)
    • Monarch: Franz-Rudolph
  • Markus von Habsburg-Wittelsbach (R)(1849 - 1856)
    • Monarch: Franz-Rudolph (until 1854)
    • Monarch: Franz-Victor
  • Ricard Hanhoff  (M)(1856 - 1862)
    • Monarch: Franz-Victor
  • Alexander Janz (R)(1862 - 1870)
    • Monarch: Franz-Victor
  • Arthur Morgenstern  (M)(1870 - 1871)
    • Monarch: Franz-Victor
  • Ricard Hanhoff (R)(1871 - 1873)
    • Monarch: Franz-Victor
  • Arthur Morgenstern (M)(1873 - 1874)
    • Monarch: Franz-Victor
  • Karl Teichtner (R)(1874 - 1876)
    • Monarch: Franz-Victor
  • Office Vacant (1876 - 1879)
    • Monarch: Franz-Victor

List of Chancellors (1879 - 1896)

  • Gilbert Schuster (M)(1879 - 1885)
    • Vice-Chancellor: Markus Helenkamp  (M)(1879 - 1885)
  • Markus Helenkamp (M)(1885 - 1894)
    • Vice-Chancellor: None (1885 - 1890)
    • Vice-Chancellor: Felipe DiRegenati  (M)(1890 - 1894)
  • Felipe DiRegenati (M)(1894 - 1896)
    • Vice-Chancellor: None (1894 - 1895)
    • Vice Chancellor: Mikael Amherst-Verner  (M)(1895 - 1896)

List of Governor-Generals (1896 - 1955)

Key: (M) = Marian Liberals; (C) = Conservative; (D) = Democratic-Federalist

  • Felipe DiRegenati (M)(1896 - 1901)
    • Vice-Governor: Mikael Amherst-Verner (M)(1896 - 1901)
  • Heinrik Paks (M)(1901 - 1902)
    • Vice-Governor: None
  • Rudolph Fresk (M)(1902 - 1904)
    • Vice-Governor: Franz-Albert Kristoffersen (M)(1902 - 1904)
  • Johann Mikelssen (C)(1904 - 1907)
    • Vice-Governor: Herman Ulmann (C)(1904 - 1907)
  • Herman Ulmann (C)(1907 - 1908)
    • Vice-Governor: None
  • Viktor von Hasse (M)(1908 - 1915)
    • Vice-Governor: Claiton Aufergast (M)(1908 - 1915)
  • Adrian Kurkeings (M)(1915 - 1927)
    • Vice-Governor: Josef Mane (M)(1915 - 1919)
    • Vice-Governor: Georg Wihelmburg (D)(1919 - 1927)
  • Josef Mane (M)(1927 - 1931)
    • Vice-Governor: Leonardo Benedetti (1927 - 1931)
  • Franz-Albert von Patriks (C)(1931 - 1935)
    • Vice-Governor: Geoffroi Kilmer (C)(1931 - 1935)
  • Claiton Dietricher (D)(1935 - 1943)
    • Vice-Governor: Jakome Pinscher (M)(1935 - 1938)
    • Vice-Governor: Melanie Leverenz (D)(1938 - 1943)
  • Melanie Leverenz (D)(1943 - 1954)
    • Vice-Governor: Oswald Klein (D)(1943 - 1954)

List of Governors (1954 - )

  • Melanie Leverenz (D)(1954 - 1955)
    • Vice-Governor: Oswald Klein (D)(1954 - 1955)

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