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After World War I, American president Woodrow Wilson created 14 points to be guidelines for reconstruction- physically and politically. Only one of his points- the idea of a "League of Nations" was created. Rather then punishing Germany with territory loss and massive reparations, Wilson warned to help Germany rebuild and give a warm hand. The Allies didn't, and Germany swore revenge on them, setting the stage for the Nazi rise to power. But what if, Wilson succeeded in his 14-point system. In this timeline, he does, and the post-Great War world becomes a totally different one.
Post-World War I
Britain, Russia, and Italy supported Wilson's 14 points. But France, losing the most life and taking the most destruction in the war, would only accept the points if a 15th one was added- no nation could invade France or attack French territory/assets, and if a nation did, the entire League of Nations would attack the invader. This actually violates some of the other points, but this was downplayed by Allied officials. Wilson himself hated the 15th point, but it was necessary to establish the other 14.
Wilson's 15 Points
- No nations could create secret alliances with one another.
- Absolute freedom of the seas. Regardless of nation, wartime, or peacetime, any vessel has freedom to navigate any body of water.
- Removal of all economic barriers except in wartime
- Reduction of national armaments for all nations
- Self-determination for all ethnic groups. An end to imperialism and expansionism.
- The evacuation of Allied troops from Russia and that the all major powers recognize the Soviet Union.
- All military forces in Belgium would withdraw and the nation would remain sovereign.
- Alsace-Lorraine would be returned to France from Germany.
- Italy's borders would be redrawn based on nationality rather then political interests.
- Austria-Hungary would be split into five different nations based on nationality.
- Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro would be restored as sovereign nations.
- The Ottoman Empire would be divided into three states - one for Turks, one for Arabs and one for Armenians.
- An independent Poland will be created.
- Large, powerful nations will only intervene in smaller conflicts for better good, rather then imperial interests of both countries. This will be ensured by a new "League of Nations", or an alliance of all nations to ensure global peace.
- Any nation that attacks France or French territory/ assets would be declared war on by every single nation in the League of Nations and invaded. No military force that isn't administered by France is permitted on French soil.
Every nation ratified the points. After the peace talks in Paris, all of these points were respected by major powers for some time. But eventually, they would be tossed aside as new issues arose.
The Roaring Twenties and Civil Unrest
Red Scare and Civil Unrest
The United States experienced an economic boom that began the Roaring Twenties. Britain, France, and Italy dealt with long-term physical reconstruction and other problems left from the war. Germany quickly plunged into a major depression, and short civil unrest. Although nations agreed to recognize the Soviet Union, fear of a world-wide communist revolution rocked the United States. The Soviet Union remained aloof from European politics for at-least a decade, as most countries were disgusted at the communist system. The United States, Britain, Germany, and Italy allied to form the North Atlantic Alliance in July, 1922. For reasons not admitted to the public, France- a hardcore anti-communist nation- was not offered to join the pact.
On November 19th, 1920, a socialist army put together by left-wing Germans marched on Berlin, escalating the conflict into an all-out civil war between three factions: the League-supporting Republicans (in favor of the Weimar Republic), various fascist militias (secretly supported by France), and communist forces (supported by the Soviet Union.) On November 23rd, a Communist spy announced to various newspapers that France was supporting fascist insurgents. At an emergency meeting declared by the League of Nations, France declined the statement and declared it had no involvement with German forces. Two weeks later, the Ritz in Paris was bombed by what was uncovered to be a German communist revolter.
Technically, as stated in Point 15, the League of Nations was now supposed to destroy communist forces in Germany and intervene in the civil war. But they were reluctant. France sent ten divisions into Germany to secure the country, and quickly requested for allied assistance.
The German Civil War
- German Communist Party (with support from the Soviet Union)- GCP
- Weimar Republicans (with support from the League of Nations)- WR
- National Fascist Party (with secret support from France)- NFP
- Karl Artelt (GCP)
- Karl von Hindenburg (WR)
- Adolf Hitler (NFP)
Intervention in the German Civil War
Although they never directly intervened, the League of Nations gave massive aid and support to France, which by the spring of 1921 was formally invading Germany
- French forces attacked communists, but never intervened against the fascists.
- The war was unpopular in France, where citizens wanted peace and soldiers refused to fight the war.
- In 1922, French soldiers refused to fight the Germans. The French had to begin a draft, but it was widely unpopular.
- Throughout 1920s, communist rebellions gained popular support not only in Germany but in France as well.
- In 1926, French forces exited Germany, and patrolled France itself, which was caught up in social unrest.
- Communist forces gained rapid success in Bavaria and Poland.
- The Geneva Peace Accords was signed in 1927. This established the Fourth Republic of France and ensured the stability of the Weimar Republic in Germany. Meanwhile, Bavaria and Poland would remain communist nations.