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Battle of Corinth (Athenian Legacy)

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Battle of Corinth
Part of Third Peloponnesian War (Athenian Legacy)
Date October 11th, 360 BCE
Location Outside Corinth
Status Decisive Athenian Victory
Territorial
changes
Athens annexes North Eastern Peloponnese.
Belligerents
Athenian Empire Peloponnesian League
Commanders and leaders
Helmetrus King Atimorachus

King Igleusis

Strength
30,000 27,000
Casualties and losses
Unknown: Moderate Unknown: Heavy
 The Battle of Corinth was the largest battle in the Third Peloponnesian War, and the final conflict involving the two war leaders, Athens and Corinth. Taking place four miles outside of Corinth, Athens won a decisive victory that dismantled the Peloponnesian War and destroyed allied hopes of restoring the old cities. 

Overview

The Athenian victory at the Battle of Perachora forced the Peloponnesian League to combine their armies and flee west, while Helmetrus attempted to pursue them. However, without naval support, the Athenian offensive was concluded early, and the Corinthian army was able to reinforce the allied forces. 

When Timotheus and his naval forces routed the blockading Corinthian naval forces, Helmetrus was able to advance into the peninsula. With new supplies and recruits, Helmetrus took position north of Corinth, where he drew in a renewed offensive by Peloponnesian forces. The Athenian army avoided conflict, and rushed south to Corinth, where they were eventually engaged on the open field by the combined allied force. 

Helmetrus positioned his Hoplites in a crescent formation, a defensive maneuver, safely keeping his archers within the fold. When the Corinthian horses attempted to outflank the Athenians, 200 hoplites and 1000 horses forced back the initial advance. The Athenian then went on the offensive while maintaining his formation, confusing the Corinthian King who was unable to respond. 

When the Athenian army was near enough, light skirmishing units kept the heavy Corinthians away while the Athenian army changed shape from having its flanks behind, to having its flanks in front. With its center away from the fighting and the Athenian cavalry defending from any encirclement motions, Helmetrus engaged his forward flanks while shooting the enemy center with his archers. 

Eventually, troubled and confused, the Corinthian center advanced on the Athenian center, enveloping itself between two Athenian flanks that were already breaking through. The center of the Corinthian army was slaughtered, and the rest of the army routed away from the victorious Athenians.

Aftermath

The victorious Athenian army did not pursue the remains of the allied army, but rather marched directly onto Corinth. Lacking a defensive guard, the Corinthian government collapsed under the advancing Athenian army. The following month, under approval from the Assembly, Timotheus declared Corinth an Athenian city. 

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