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Aztec Empire (Aztec Empire)

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Ce Mexïhca Anàhuãc
Aztec Empire
1325 –
Flag of the Aztec Empire Coat of arms of Mexico
Motto
"Huéy Tlatoani, Anàhuãc, Yototme ue Techteteochihuac.
("Emperor, Empire, Unity and Fraternity")
Anthem
Mexihca Tlachucuicatl "Xhicuitl Cueponi." [1]
Aztec location map.svg
The Aztec Empire Territory and its Subdivisions
Capital Tenochtitlan (10,407,000 inh)
Largest City Tenochtitlan Metropolitan Area (27,631,000 inh)
Official Language
·Co-Official
·Nahuatl
·Maya, Puerepecha, Tzamil, Mixtec and other 62 languages and 130 dialects.
Government Type
·Emperor
·Prime Minister
·Federal Constitutional Elective Monarchy
·Tlatoani Atzala Hueicuitilli Tonantzin
·Huenupan Sihuca Yuma
Establishment
·Tenochtitlan Foundation
·Alliance with Texcoco
·1325
·1395
Area 2,105,000 sq km
Population 194,447,000
GDP Nominal $ 13,456 trillion (2nd)
GDP PPP 2007 $ 15,786 trillion (2nd)
HDI 0.965
HDI Rank 5th (very high)
Currency Tomnin
Demonym Meshica, Aztec
Administrative Divisions ·52 States
·2 Royal Cities
·2 overseas territories
Religions Principaly Toyecnemiliztli and Christianity
Armed Forces 1.3 million active troops
Highest Point Mt. Citlaltepetl (5700m)


The Aztec Empire ( Nahuatl: Ce Mexïhca Anàhuãc /se meːˈʃika ɑɳɑ'ɯɑ'k/), commonly known as Anahuac or as The Empire in the USA. Is a Federal constitutional elective monarchy in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by the Twantinsuyo and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million sq km, the Anahuac is the third-largest country in the Americas by total area and the 15th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of 194 million, it is the 12th most populous country. It is a federation comprising Fifty-two states and two Special Districts, Center (Tenochtitlan) and South (Chichen Itza); and by two overseas territories.


In Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Maya and the Aztec before the first contact with Europeans. In 1521, Spain tried to conquer and colonize the territory; but it wasn't possible because of the Aztec resistance. The Empire Formed an alliance with the Twantinsuyo to keep away the European Influence during the XVI century. The XVI-XIX centuries period was characterized by economic grow, territorial conflicts, colonization and civil war, including foreign intervention, and a failed putsch to the empire become a republic. The XX century is characterized as being a bloody century, because during this, the Empire participated in around seven wars including WW-I and WWII.


Being the first industrialized country in America and member of the NAEET, the OPEC, the G8 and the NATO, The Anahuac is firmly established as a high income country, considered as industrialized country and has the 2nd largest nominal GDP and PPP GDP. The economy is strongly linked to The USA's economy since the XVIII century.

History

See Anahuac's history

Geography

The Aztec Empire is located at about 23° N and 102° W in the southern portion of North America. It is also located in a region known as Middle America. Almost all of Empire lies in the North American Plate, with small parts of its Central America portion on the Pacific and Cocos Plates. Geophysically, some geographers include the territory east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (around 12% of the total) within Central America. Geopolitically, however, the empire is considered part of North America along with the United States.

The empire's total area is 2,072,550 sq km, making it the world's 12th largest country by total area, and includes approximately 6000 sq km of islands in the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of California.
Aztec

The Aztec Empire location in America

Biodiversity

The empire is one of the 18 mega diverse countries of the world. With over 200,000 different species, it is home of 10–12% of the world's biodiversity. The empires ranks first in biodiversity in reptiles with 707 known species, second in mammals with 438 species, fourth in amphibians with 290 species, and fourth in flora, with 26,000 different species. It is also considered the second country in the world in ecosystems and fourth in overall species. Approximately 2500 species are protected by Mexican legislation. The Aztec government created the National System of Information about Biodiversity, in order to study and promote the sustainable use of ecosystems.

In the empire, 270,000 sq km are considered "Protected Natural Areas." These include 34 reserve biospheres (unaltered ecosystems), 64 national parks, four natural monuments (protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value), 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, four areas for natural resource protection (conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests) and 17 sanctuaries (zones rich in diverse species).

The discovery of the Americas brought to the rest of the world many widely used ingredients. Some of Mexico's native ingredients include: chocolate, tomato, maize, vanilla, avocado, guava, chayote, epazote, camote, jícama, nopal, tejocote, huitlacoche, sapote, mamey sapote, many varieties of beans, and an even greater variety of chilis, such as the Habanero. Most of these names are in indigenous languages like Nahuatl.

Politics

The Empire is a federal constitutional elective monarchy. The federal head of state of Anahuac is the Huey Tlatoani, commonly referred to as the Emperor of the Anahuac; that is supported by the Cihuocoatl, the Prime Minister. The government type is unique in the world, and dates from 1325. As in many other monarchies around the world, in the Anahuac the throne isn't inherited, it is gained by an election. The Tlatoani's election (that is a life-long period) is divided in three elections; the first one is made on each state and special district, were the population choose the Calpulli's chiefs, that are the state's leader (do not confuse with the state's governor). Then these 54 leaders met in a Great Council called Cakilixkistli, similar to the Vatican's Conclave. Later, in the Great Council, they choose four Great Electors, then later will choose the Huey Tlatoani or Great Speaker. The Tlatoani needs to have various requirements, but basically experience and studies on politics, warfare and economics.

The Government is divided into three powers:
Aztec senate

Aztec Parliament

Legislature The bicameral Parliament composed of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies which makes federal law, declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments.

Executive Is composed of the Tlatoani and the Cihuocoatl, who is the head of state and government, as well as commander in chief of the Armed forces. The Executive also appoints the Cabinet and other officers.

Judiciary The Supreme Court of Justice, comprised by eleven judges appointed by the executive with Senate approval, who interpret laws and judge cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Electoral Tribunal, collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary.


There exists four principal parties that control the Senate:

  • XIT-Xipec Ilhuaic Tlalololi (Institutional Democracy Party)
  • PET- Pacualli Etiyotl Tlalololi (National Action Party)
  • HYT-Huemaxi Yololotl Tlalololi (Democratic Revolution Party)
  • AYOT-Anahuac Yancuic Omeyocan Tlalololi (New Anahuac's Alliance Party)


The Empire has strong sociopolitical relationships with the U.S. since its independence in the XVIII century; because the empire helped them to obtain it. They fought together in the First World War and the Second World War against the Axis, principally the Incan Empire.

Administrative Divisions

The country is divided in 52 prefectures or states, two Special Districts, where is located the capital, both in the continental part; and two territories outside the continent, one in the south part of Greenland and the other one in West Africa.

The states are:

  • Acollman
  • Texcoco
  • Tlacopan
  • Xico
  • Ixtapallocan
  • Huaxacayac
  • Cempohuallan
  • Iza
  • Misco
  • Cuauhtemallan
  • Huatemalli
  • ...

Armed Forces

ETITOC TANK

EO-87 Etitoc super heavy tank from the 50's

The Royal Aztec Air Force, the Aztec Army, the Aztec Navy and the Nuclear/Space Division are all collectively known as the Aztec Armed Forces. The current Commander-in-chief is Admiral Yăhuilli Ahuitzol, being managed by the Minister of National Defense.

The total defense spending currently accounts for 1.05% of total national GDP, which represents approximately 89.9 billion dollars (ranked second, after the USA).

The Armed Forces of the Aztec Empire are one of the most powerful ones in the world. They have a 600 year history and tradition, since the rise to their enemies (Tlacopan) around the XV century. It is composed of around 1.3 million men.

Economy

The Aztec empire has a mixed capitalist economy that is fed by rich natural resources a developed infrastructure and a high productivity. Its national GDP is the second largest in the world after the USA. The Empire has the first place by per capita GDP, it is the second largest importer of goods and the fourth largest exporter. The United States of America, Germany, China and the Republic of Great Colombia are their principal commercial partners. The principal exportation of the Empire is the electronic machinery and its principal importation are the cars.

The country has a lot of resources, it has large oil deposits and it is the first producer of silver and gold in the world. The principal agricultural production are the corn, the avocado, the chilis, the wheat and many fruits (principally bananas). Three-quarters of the population works in the services industry.

The economy is connected with the US economy, so its currency is connected with the American dollar.

The country is the fourth most visited country in the world with 49.2 million of tourists in 2007, behind France, Spain and the United States of America.

Transportation

Mexihca treinej2

National high speed rail network. Cities framed are baked up by both suburban rail and Subway system

The paved-roadway network in the Anahuac is the second most extensive in America 2005. Nonetheless, Anahuac's diverse orography - most of the territory is crossed by high-altitude ranges of mountains - has led to difficulties in creating an integrated transportation network and even though the network has improved, it still cannot meet national needs adequately; so that the 67% of the population have never used the national roadways system, preferring aerial transport or even the High Speed Train.

Being the first American country to promote railway development, the network, is about at 330,952 km, being the most dense railway network in the continent. Most of the rail network is used for merchandise or industrial freight and was mostly operated by Mexihca Treinej MT (Aztec National Trains), privatized in 1987.

Mexhicanej ariplane at Cuauhtemoc Airport

Mexihcaj's airplane at Cuauhtemoc Intl. Airport in Tenochtitlan

In 1999, the Empire had 16,806 airports, of which 933 had paved runways; of these, 55 carry 97% of the passenger traffic. The Nezahualcoyotl International Airport in Tenochtitlan remains the second largest in America and the second largest in the world transporting 95 million passengers a year. There are more than 30 domestic airline companies of which only three are known internationally: Aeromexihca, Mexihcanej and Mexihcaj Airlines.

Mass transit in the Empire is very important. A part of the domestic passenger transport needs are served by an extensive bus network with several dozen companies operating by regions and about 10 lines of High Speed Trains operated by MT, Mexihca Treinej (National Aztec Railways). There also exists many interurban train passenger transportation between cities. Inner-city rail mass transit is available at Tenochtitlan, Chichen Itza, New Otumba, New Azcapotzalco, Cacaxtla, Zipolite, Purepechcalli, Mixco, Tulum and Hutatemallan with the operation of the subway and in many cases high elevated train due the orography and climate; this makes the Aztec Empire the country with more cities with subway system. There also exists suburban train systems in many cities such Tenochtitlan, Chichen Iza, Cacaxtla, etc

Urbanization

More than 87% of the population in the empire lives in cities, so, it is the country with most urbanized inhabitants (in proportion of its total population) in the world. Only 20 cities content more than a half of the total population.

The twenty most important metropolitan areas in the Anahuac:  

Num. City State Pop. Num. City State Pop. Tenochskyline
Tenochtitlan
Chichen itza
Chichen Itza
New otumba
New Otumba
1 Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan E.C.D. 27,231,829 11 Tollan Kerhietari 3,918,100
2 Chichen Itza Chichen Itza E.S.D. 17,095,853 12 Xuarex Xicaua 2,968,700
3 New Otumba West Mississippi 15,664,331 13 Huatemallan Huatemallan 2,717,197
4 New Azcapotzalco Xonora 10,456,789 14 Tampico Tamahoalipa 2,011,809
5 Cacaxtla Tlaxcalan 9,567,243 15 Guaymas Xonora 2,005,809
6 Zipolite Huaxacayac 7,483,992 16 Huacapulqui Cihuatlan 1,919,778
7 Purepechcalli P’urhécheo 7,008,981 17 Atepan Xicaua 1,218,607
8 Mixco Cuauhtemallan 4,656,098 18 Xallapan Tayin 1,034,510
9 Tulum Yuuk'atan 4,176,906 19 Coatzacoalcos Tlahuashco 988,400
10 Cempohuallan Tayin 3,980,567 20 Ayahualolco Nayaitl 943,003


Science and Technology

Tenochtitlan university's library

Tenochtitlan Hueyamoxcalli, central library of the empire, it has the biggest collection of documents, more than 140 million of them, written in 567 languages and with an age of more than 500 years

Sports

The National sport is the Tlachtli that is considered the ancestor of the basketball. It is a very old sport, the first references of this sport date from 5000 years ago. It is attributed to the Olmec culture, sometimes called the mother culture. In the past, it was a sacred sport a ritual that was dedicated to the Gods, and the winners were sacrificed to them. Nowadays, is a popular sport, and its only purpose is the recreation; and it have been like that since the XVIII century, when the emperor commanded in a reform that the game will be like that during the process known as the Easternization.

Other popular sports (ordered by popularity) are the Soccer*, Baseball and Basketball, principally to the empire cultural exchange with the USA.

The Aztec Empire is an important country in the summer Olympic Games, adding more than 2000 medals in all the XX century. It has been the host of four Olympic Games: Tenochtitlan 1904, Chichen Itza 1953, New Otumba 1968 and Tenochtitlan 1992.  

  • Tlatchtli is the most popular sport in the Empire.

Holidays

Date Name in Nahuatl Name in English Remarks
1st January Yancuic Xihuitl New Year's Day Christian (Georgian Calendary)
29th January Yancuic Xiuhpohualli nié Tonathiù New Year's Day Aztec calendar
6th February Tonalï Mexihcã Empire Day  
31st February Selcãtiyotl Tonalï Day of war against Atzcatpotzalco city-state Something like an Independence Day
8th May Tonalï Tepãnaualistli 1945 Victory Day 1945 Defeat of the Incan Empire, 1945
21st July Telco Üelitiyotl Accession of the Tlatoani Atzala Hueicuitilli Tonantzin  
30th August Tòli Cuàuhitle Yohüali Sad night Victory  
2nd November Mikitistli Day of the Deaths  
16th November Yaoyôtl Chikaktli Tonalï Armed Forces Day Victory in Chichen Itza, 1943. Day of mourning for lost soldiers
13th December Tepãnaualistli Castillãn Defeat of the Spaniards at the Tenochtitlan siege  
25th December Tlacâtilisilüitl Christmas (not official) only Christians, not a day off
     

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