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Aztec-Spaniard Wars (The Purple Mantle)

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The Aztec-Spaniard Wars
Conquis
Beginning:

05 March 1508

End:

02 February 1586

Place:

Aztec territory

Outcome:

Official recognition of the Aztec Empire as a Sovereign State

Major battles:

Chichén-Itzá ♦ Tlatelolco ♦ Tuxpan-Resistencia

Combatants

Mexica Triple Alliance Glyphs
Ce Mexïhca Anàhuãc "Mexica Triple Alliance" (until 1583)

Mexhica Aztec Empire (The Purple Flag)
Aztec Empire(from 1583)

Flag of Cross of Burgundy
The Spanish Empire
Coat of arms of New Spain
Gobernation of New Spain (from 1509 to 1585)

Commanders

Moctezuma Xocoyotzin
Moctezuma II
Cuauhtemoc

Nicolas Ovando
Hernán Cortez
Francisco Pizarro

Strength

Mexhican Army 49,000

Spanish Army 51,000

Casualties and Losses

The Aztec-Spaniard Wars (1508-1586) were a series of armed conflicts occurred during the XVI Century, where the Kingdom of Spain fought against the Aztec Empire over its territories and the possession of the riches of the latest. There was an initial invasion followed by three wars, all of them ended up in the final defeat of the Spaniard Kingdom and the recognition of the Aztec Empire as sovereign nation.

Background

In August of 1496 Columbus arrived the Island of "La Española" (current Haiti). However after a mutiny, which cost Columbus' life and one of his ships, the mutineers arrived on November to the coast where a local tribe convinced them to move to the Great City of Tenochtitlán. when they arrived they were initially mistaken as "Gods" which tempt them to capture the Emperor Moctezuma Xocoyotzin as a hostage. They were defeated, and instead of sacrifice them to Gods, they were forced to teach them about their culture, weaponry and Horsemanship. As the Spaniards reinforced their position in the caribean through colonization and slavery, they found out about the descendants from the Legendary Island of Aztlán and their riches, and lead by the Conquistador Nicolás de Ovando they attacked the city of Tenochtitlán; they were received by the Mexhicas who were prepared, equipped with primitives fire weapons as well as cavalry of their own. The battle was fierce and the dead many, in an event known as "La Noche Triste" by the Spanish, they were forced to retrieve to La Española. The worst, however, came through the dissemination of several diseases brought by the Spanish soldiers, causing an epidemic on the Aztec territory. Nevertheless, the Empire managed to stand still against the white man's invasion.

The First Aztec-Spaniard War

Gobernacion de Nueva España

the "Gobernacion de Nueva España" during 1512

Three waves were sent during the 1508-1512 span time, from the Spanish base at La Española Island, The Mexhica were weakened due to the last spaniard offensive, however, they manage to resist the invasion to their capital, losing however a big territorial space in the coastal line and several km inland from there. This Spanish conquest was named  Gobernación de Nueva España.


The Second Aztec - Spaniard War

Gobernacion de Nueva España 1524

the "Gobernacion de Nueva España" during 1524

After eight years of minimun confrontations, in 1520 the "Government of New Spain" continued its expansionist movement, capturing more territory into Mexhica Space, while the natives, better (yet scarcely) equipped sustained damage and fell back. In 1525, this situation begun to change, whit the intervention of the Dutch (without Spanish consent) and the English, whom started to commerce with the Triple Alliance, giving them the necessary weaponry and elements to sustain the native's armies. This cause heavy damage to the Spaniards until a temporary armistice was signed, causing a stagnation between both nations in 1537

The Third Aztec - Spaniard War

This War is divided into two parts: The first one was fought between 1550 to 1559, and in that moment the rebuilt forces faced each other with some help from English, French and Dutch Pirates, and during this phase the Triple Alliance managed to recapture most of the territory lost to Spain. The second phase began in 1570 (after eleven years of non-declared armistice), and was characterized by a Heavy a constant Mexhica military aggressive presence, which was paired with official establishment of the Aztec Empire in 1583 and the International support of the English, French and Portuguese kingdoms, all of this was instrumental in in the definitive expulsion of the Spaniard presence from the Yucatán Gulf area in 1585, and the finalization of all conflicts with the Treaty of Tuxpan-Resistencia (both are the same city, named differently by both nations) in 1586, in which the Spaniards were forced recognize the Aztec Sovereignty.


Consequences

  • During the third war, The Mexica Triple Alliance led by Tenochtitlán had funded into a single compact nation which unified several cloisters of local identities, and because of that the original name of "Ce Mexïhca Anàhuãc" was dropped in behalf of the name of the "Aztec Empire", due to the legend of the mythical origins of the people of Tenochtitlán, used by the Europeans and as moralizing element.
  • The "Aztec Empire is now internationally recognized as a Soverign Nation in Europe.
  • Spain was left economically ruined due to the long conflict and renounces to its American possessions except for La Florida, La Española and the Caribbean territories.

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