Austria-Hungary was an empire existing during the second half of the 1800s and early 1900s. One of the largest empires in Europe, it was began to fall apart due to the various nationalist movements involving the ethnic groups it ruled. Due to the placement of Maximilian of House Hapsburg on the Mexican throne by the French, an alliance was soon created between the empire and France, the origins of the Allied Coalition. Austria-Hungary rapidly industrialized in the second half of the 1800s, becoming a world leader in industrial might.
The Empire was involved in a struggle with the decaying Ottomans over the Balkans, and a secret treaty was signed with the Russians that agreed to split the Balkans between them. The Balkans War escalated into an international crisis between Austria and the Ottomans, launching World War I. Austria struggled tremendously in the war, with high casualties for little to no gain. Following France's and Russia's defeat, Austria surrendered, ending the war. The Empire was dissolved and split into several nations.
With the collapse of Austria-Hungary following the First World War, the victorious nations of the war were given the task of dividing the nation.