Australia, officially known as the Republic of Australia, is a republic in the Southern Hemisphere comprising mainland Australia, Tasmania, the New Zealand Isles, and few smaller islands in the Indian Ocean. It is the largest and only country in the Oceanian continent and is one of the world's largest by total area. It borders the Indian Ocean to the west, the Pacific to the east and south, and the American state of New Guinea and the French East Indies to the north.
For at least 40,000 years, indigenous Australians, mainly the Aborgines, who spoke over 250 languages, roamed the Australian continent while the Maoris roamed the New Zealand Isles. In 1606, the Dutch were the first Europeans to discoer Australia, yet made little to no effort to colonize it. The real Europeans to ever settle the country were the British thanks to the voyages of Captain Cook. The eastern half of the Australian mainland was claimed by the British in 1770 and established a penal colony of New South Wales in January 26th, 1788. Eventually, the population steadily grew over the years as the interior was discovered, though large-scale immigration was sparked by gold rushes and free land. Because of the large movement of people, the settlers constantly came to conflict with the aborgines and maoris. Yet during the late 19th-Century, they established land agreements that ceased conflict.
After the downfall of the English monarchy after Great War II, Australia became a victim of England's hyperinflation and economic problems. During Mosley's rise to power, it became an advocated supporter at first, yet as England began losing the war, it had to gain independence for fear of invasion. Australia eventually gained independence and was a member of the Washington Pact against France for its actions against England.
Australia is a collection of seven former colonies, which united into a republican federation. Since the union, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system which functions as a federal parliamentary democracy. The federation includes West Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, New Zealand, Tasmania, South Australia, and Victoria. The population is around 30 million and is heavil concentrated in the Eastern states and enjoys a high standard of living.
Australia has a highly developed economy and has one of the highest per capita income. Australia maintains a military presence in the South Pacific yet has one of the world's lowest military expenditures. It has one of the highest human development index globally and ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance. Australia is a member of the Washington Pact, the G-organizations and the IL.