Alternate History


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Atowa (the name of this timeline is derived from the Coptic word for morning-ⲁⲧⲟⲟⲩⲓ -atooui).

The major POD is that the ruling class of Mecca prevent the self-styled prophet to flee to Yathrib, thus the whole new religion is betterflied away.

Timeline of events


  • 629- Byzantine -Arab wars go under a much different manner for two things: at first the Arabs are partly pagan, some Christian, and secondly they are not united. Therefore the whole conflict resembles more the Germanic invasions of the Roman Empire. The first entity to be defeated is the Ghassanid kingdom kingdom set up as a buffer state against the Bedouin.
  • 638- Byzantine garrisons retreat from Palestine, where a Ghatafanid kingdom is established.
  • 640- The Kalb tribe establishes a kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, while Lower Mesopotamia becomes part of the Bakrid kingdom. Also the Hawazin tribe takes control of Egypt. Armenia manages to remain independent.
  • 642- Northern Levant except coastal parts of Lebanon are overrun by Arabs .Byzantines and Persians declare an alliance, saying that had they been allied before the destuctive war, they would ensure stability.
  • 656- The king of Hawazin Egypt converts to Coptic Chrisitanity and becomes a Pharaoh.
  • 660-Kalbid kingdom in Assyria makes war against the Arab state in Syria. The Sassanid dynasty is overthrown, the Dabuyid dynasty become Shahs.
  • 667- Exarch Eleutherios of Africa declares independence upon Byzantium, seeking alliance with the Visigoths. At the same time, the Arab kingdom of Syria collapses, areas west of the Euphrates valley becoming part of Byzantium, while the Euphrates and Khabur valley part of the Assyrian kingdom. The Kalbid dynasty has converted to Nestorianism by this time.
  • 680: Byzantine victory at the Battle of Ongal (no Arab siege of Constantinopolis, remember?) The Bulgarians establish a state north of the Danube.
  • 683- the Hawazin dynasty in Egypt is overthrown and the dynasty of Sanutius ( a local Coptic one) is installed.
  • 688- Emperor Justinian II. defeats the Ghatafanid kingdfom in southern Levant, Jerusalem becomes part of Byzantium.
  • 691-Justinian II. finally reaches an agreement with Sanutius regarding Cyrenaica and Sinai. The former remains Byzantine, the latter Coptic.
  • At around 700 AD the whole Persian Gulf is Nestorian, while Yemen and Oman, along with Hejaz and northern Najd are adopting Monophysite Chrisitanity. A large Jewish community is present in Hejaz.
  • 705- War on the Lower Danube, resulting in Bulgaria conquering the former Roman province of lower Moesia.
  • 707- Unification of Mesopotamia. Kingdom of Africa leads a series of campaigns against Berbers in Tripolitania and Numidia
  • 711- Persians conquer Sindh. The Maurish state of Ouarsenis takes control of pretty much whole of western Algeria and northern Morocco.
  • 717- Byzantine campaign in the Balkans: Byzantines secure Albania, Macedonia and Greece.
  • 718- King of Srividaya sends a letter to the Persian Shah, signing offiical contract.
  • 726- Great disputes about Iconoclasm arise, the Patriarch in Constantinople asks the bishops for their opinion.
  • 732- African-Maurish war, a climactic battle near Capsa occurs, resulting in African victory. Meanwhile the Franks launch their attack against the Visigoths, with the Ebro river becoming the border. Soon Charlie Martel makes a coup d´état.
  • 747-Persia launches an attack against Mesopotamia, resulting in conquest (751), but Persia has to tolerate Nestorian Christianity. Moors conquer Septum.
  • 750-Persia expands into Transoxiana. Meanwhile a Nestorian state in Beth Qatriye forms.
  • 764- Moorish tribes in Morocco cross the Pillars of Heracles and take control of Baetica
  • 772- Charlemagne's campaigns in Saxony begin.
  • 787-End of Iconoclasm in all parts of the empire.
  • 790-Visigothic rule in Spain collapses: Frankish empire conquer Aragon, while Berbers take advatage of Lusitania, Valencia, Castile. A state of Leon emerges in the northwest.
  • 792- Battle of Marcellae- Bulgaria maintains independence, and influence over Slavic Serbia.Coptic Egypt conquers Cyrenaica.
  • 800-Charlemagne crowned emperor
  • 804- Africa conquers Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Malta and the Balearic Islands.
  • 809-815- Byzantine-Bulgarian war- resulting in a border Burgas-Dimitrovgrad-Blagoevgrad and then copying he southern border of FYROM.
  • 814- Death of Charlemagne
  • 827- Africa takes control of OTL Algeria.
  • 830-Persian Shah Daeios the VII. establishes House of Wisdom in Ctesiphon- a university.
  • 842- Serbia (Backed by Byzantium) fights against Bulgaria. Bulgaria defeated, loses all areas in western Thrace to Byzantium.
  • 843- Treaty of Verdun- partition of the Frankish empire.All lands south of the Ebro are conquered by Maurish Baetica.
  • 846- Marqus of Africa arrives at Rome and claims imperial title.
  • 851- Persian merchants arrive in China.
  • 852 Marquse of Africa conquers Morocco.
  • 864- Christianization of Bulgaria
  • 870- Christianization of Serbia
  • 911- A coup d´état in Africa, changing the name to Carthaginian empire, Punic language experiences a renaissance.
  • 917- Battle of Achelous- Byzantine victory (with help of Moravian and Magyar contingents). Bulgaria is expelled from Thrace.
  • 920- Egypt conquers Palestine
  • 925- Carthage conquers Baetica. Maurish Hispania collapses. Lusitania, Galicia, Leon, Castile, Aragon and Toledo emerge.
  • 927-Bulgarian Patriarchate set up at Ochrid
  • 928- Persia ends up in a civil war, with Mesopotamia, Caucasian Albania and Transoxiana (supported by BethQatriye and Armenia) on one side against conservative Iranian plateau on the other.
  • 939 End of war, Mesopotamia, Albania and Transoxiana are independent.
  • 955-Khorasan (Eastern Iran+ Afghanistan) becomes independent
  • 965- Khazar-Russian war ends in staus quo ante bellum
  • 975 Ghaznavid - a Turkic Nestorian mercenary caste takes power in Khorasan, Balochistan Tukmenistan.
  • 980- Collapse of Moravia.
  • 999 Collapse of Persian state. Ghaznavids conquered eastern Iran, while Armenian and Mesopotamian forces the western parts.


  • 1000- Mahmud of Ghaznis campaigns in India
  • 1014- Byzantines are victorious against Bulgaria,
  • 1018- Bulgaria is conquered by Byzantium
  • 1037- Leon conquers Galicia, Battle of Toledo between Carthage and Castile.
  • 1040- The Ghaznids are smashed by Seljuks.
  • 1042- Normans in southern Italy are smashed by Byzantines, who occupy everything south of Rome including Sicily.
  • 1043- Byzantine general George Maniaces declares himself king of Sicily.
  • 1053-George Maniaces is deposed by Norman King Humphrey of Hauteville.
  • 1055- Seljuks capture Ctesiphon- many prominent Mesopotamians flee to Beth Qatriye.
  • 1056 Ferdinand is crowned Emperor of Spain by uniting Castile and Leon.
  • 1068- Seljuks destroy Georgia. State of Mauritania independent. Also Khazars collapse by the Cumans
  • 1071- Seljuks defeat Byzantines at Mantzikert
  • 1072- Seljuks conquer Ankara
  • 1073- Seljuks defeat a Coptic army near Gadot at the upper Jordan river. Seljuks conquer Jerusalem
  • 1088- Carthaginians are driven out of Spain except the Baetica coast.
  • 1091- Normans conquer Malta and Sicily from Carthage.
  • 1092 -The Kypchaks defeat Russia
  • 1094-Maurish kingdom attacks Ghana.
  • 1096- The Seljuks convert to Nestorianism and make it a state religion. No Crusades happen.
  • 1099- Kingdom of Georgia is independent
  • 1100- An alliance of Byzantium and Coptis attack the Seljuks with Copts taking control of the Levant and Byzantines reconquer western Anatolia.
  • 1108- Antioch is gained by Byzantium.
  • 1110-A kingdom is proclaimed in Jerusalem.
  • 1125- Battle of Azaz: the Seljuk power weakens, Syria breaks up into a handful of principalities.
  • 1130- Lusitanian-Hispanic war. Lusitania loses Extramadura.
  • 1140-Start of civil war in Carthage. Two parties emerge: African Latins in the north (except Carthage) and Punics (inland regions plus the city itself and Tripolitania)
  • 1144- The medievsal kingdom of Aram emerges, claiming Damascus as its capital.
  • 1147 The Moors unify and declare a kingdom of Mauritiania based in Oran.
  • 1154- The Moors invade Baetica. Meanwhile, Byzantine reconquest of eastern Anatolia takes place. An independent Amenia emerges.
  • 1155 Normans in Sicily disembark in North Africa, conquer Carthage and install Henry, the youngest son of king Wiliam I. Sicily as king in Carthage.
  • 1160-Byzantines conquer Cyrenaica.
  • 1170 Mauritania signs an alliance with Aragon and Leon against Castile.
  • 1171 Coup d´ état in Egypt, Habil II., count of Suez becomes Pharaoh.
  • 1176- The Turks invade Anatolia , and create a kingdom in Pisidia and Cappadocia. Meanwhile a revolt in Yazd and Kermania led by Zoroastrian zealots weakens the Seljuk power.
  • 1180- Anatolian Turks convert to Orthodox Christianity.
  • 1185- A successful uprising in Bulgaria results in independence. Bulgaria and and Anatolian Turks ally each other.
  • 1187-Syria conquers Jerusalem after the Battle of Hattin, and unifies the entire Levant (except Antioch)
  • 1192- Syria conquers Antioch. Meanwhile a Zoroastrian state occupying the southeastern half of OTL Iran emerges.
  • 1193 First Nestorian state is established in Northern India.
  • 1204- Venice captures Zara from Byzantium.
  • 1205- Battle of Adrianople: Byzantine victory against Bulgaria.
  • 1212- Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa - Castilo-Lusitan victory against Leon, Aragon and Mauritania.
  • 1213- Aragonese and Maurish forces won at Muret.
  • 1215-Turks raid into central Anatolia.
  • 1223-Mongols defeat Russians at Kalka
  • 1230- Assyrian state in Mesopotamia re-established, Seljuk power in Iran collapses.
  • 1227- The Estonians accept Christianity- a principality of Estonia is formed under German influence.
  • 1230- Carthage grabs control of Tripolitania and Numidia. Meanwhile, Hungary, Poland and Russia are crashed by the Mongols.
  • 1242- Battle of Peipus. Russia defeats German nobility settled in Baltics and enforces Russian influence in the region.
  • 1244-Copts defeat Syria at the Battle of La Forbie.
  • 1250- A Byzantine fleet reaches Alexandria, The dynasty of Asiyut is installed.
  • 1258- Ctesiphon is conquered by the Mongols.
  • 1261- Copts conquer Syria, Antioch is recovered by Byzantines.
  • 1300- Nestorianism reaches Aceh.
  • 1309- Start of the Avignon papacy.
  • 1310- Ilkhanate converts to Christianity.
  • 1320- Northern India back in Hindu hands.
  • 1325- Foundation of Tenochtitlán. Ivan I. becomes ruler of Moscow. By this time the Ottomans emerge around the city of Sivas
  • 1337- Start of the Hundred Years´War.
  • 1347- Black death reaches Europe. A Nestorian kingdom emerges in Transoxania
  • 1351- Ming dynasty overthrows Mongols in China
  • 1361- Kingdom of Zanzibar emerges under the influence of Persian merchants.
  • 1380- Timur, king of Transoxania begins his campaigns seeking to restore the mongol empire.
  • 1389 Byzantines now control most of the Balkans save Serbia. Battle of Kosovo takes place, resulting in status quo.
  • 1391- Ilkhanate collapses, with Assyria, Medea, Khorasan, Transoxania, Persia and Balochistan emerging.
  • 1401- A Zoroastrian Malwa shahdom is established in India
  • 1410- Battle of Grunwald- Polish victory over German Prussia.
  • 1415- Lusitania conquers Sifta, but the city is retaken in ten years.
  • 1440s - Golden Horde collapses into a handful of Khanates, with the western parts being Orthodox, the eastern Nestorian and some parts becoming Zoroastrian or remaining Tengri.
  • 1444- Byzantines defeat Ottomans uterly. No Turkic state remains in Anatolia. Also Serbia is annexed by Byzantium.
  • 1445 -Kazan defeats Muscovy at Suzdal.
  • 1450-Byzantine reconquest of Egypt, granting them significant autonomy.
  • 1455-Byzantium reaches the borders of the East Roman Empire.
  • 1467-Medea conquers Persia.
  • 1470- The Kingdom of Betica is founded. Also Moldavia defeats the Tatars.
  • 1471- Novgorod conquers Estonia.
  • 1470s Matthias Corvinus conquers Bohemia, Austria and Croatia as well as Romania.
  • 1492- Christopher Columbus in Leone's service reaches America.


Spread of religions


  • Catholicism is spread pretty much the way it is in OTL plus North and west Africa.
  • Orthodox Christianity - spread in Anatolia, Balkans, Russia, and western Levant, as well as the Caucasus.
  • Oriental Orthodoxy ("Myaphysite")- Egypt, Cyrenaica, Levant, adjacent regions of Arabia (Hejaz, Yemen), Nubia, Ethiopia, Armenia.
  • Church of the east "Nestorians"- Mesopotamia, Central Asia, parts of the Indus valley, Persian Gulf, Oman...

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