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Artsakh (Armenian: Արցախ, Arts'akh; Russian: Арцах), officially known as the Republic of Artsakh, is a republic of the Soviet Union which is located in the southern Caucasus. Artsakh is the only Soviet republic to be completely enclaved by another (that being Azerbaijan). The republic is mostly mountainous, with Mount Mrav being the highest peak.
The region was originally organized as the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR, despite having a population mostly comprised of Armenians. By the late 1980s, conflict against Azerbaijani control began among the Armenian population, a crisis which soon involved the deployment of Soviet troops into the region. An all out civil war was averted in late 1991 as when Azerbaijan and the the Soviet Union agreed to allow more autonomy for the region, in exchange that they abandon their goals of reuniting with Armenia (which at the time had gained independence from the USSR). Artsakh would later be elevated into a full republic and would be regarded as something of a successor state to the former Armenian SSR.
The vast majority of Artsakh's population is comprised of ethnic Armenians; with Azerbaijanis, Georgians, Greeks, Russians, and Ukrainians making up the minority. Most of the residence speak Armenian, with Russian being a de fact and secondary language. Most of the population is Christian and adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church. Eastern Orthodoxy and Evangelicalism form the largest minority, though Shia Islam retains some following. The Artsakhian economy is dominated by agriculture and viticulture. In recent years, the republic has relied on tourism. Politically, the republic has been dominated by the Democratic Party and the Liberal Party.