The Argentine War, also known as the Argentine Civil War, was a Cold War proxy conflict. It was officially fought between the Argentine government, a right-wing dictatorship led by General Juan Carlos Ongania, and the Argentine Unification Party, a unitarian rebellion popularly refered to as the Unificadores. The conflict stemmed from the overthrow of liberal president Juan Peron by the military, replaced with Ongania's regime; Peron's supporters moved underground to form the AUP. Ongania would dismantle Congress and opposing political parties and committed state terrorism against political dissendents and suspected socialists. The conflict was initially fought between the AUP and the military regime, but the superpowers of the time would be drawn into the conflict, with the United States backing the regime and the Greater Union supporting the rebels. After years of American military escalation, widespread AUP offensives in 1979 and the revelation of the war crimes of the Argentine government would result in American public opinion swinging against the war.
The new Nationalist government of the United States would begin withdrawal in 1981, a process known as "Argentinization" where the brunt of the fighting was transferred from the United States to the military regime itself. The last American troops withdrew in 1983. Venezuela would become the main supporter of the AUP as the Greater Union began to withdraw as well; the 1984 Venezuelan intervention would lead to the fall of Buenos Aires in 1985, the collapse of the military regime, and the establishment of a unitarian state. Despite being allied with the Greater Union, Argentina would move closer to Venezuela and the Non-Aligned Movement in the 1990s, with the collapse of the Greater Union in the early 2000s resulting in a peaceful democratic revolution in Argentina in 2002 and it joining the Non-Aligned Movement.