Argentina, officially the Federal Republic of Argentina, is a federal republic located in southeastern South America. Covering most of the Southern Cone, it is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and with the inclusion of Chile now has a large Pacific coastline.
Argentina is the second largest nation in South America next to Brazil and continues to claim sovereignty over various areas in Antarcctica and officially has control of the Falkland islands (formerly a British Territory). Argentina is one of the worlds most powerful economies with a large scale and emerging high tech industry that is coming more on par with the Brazilian economy. This however is more of a re-emergence following the Argentine-Brazilian cold war in which the Argentinian Economy collapsed unable to keep up with the larger capabilities of Brazilian economies.
Argentina also maintains a large and very well trained military, a byproduct of the previous hostility with Brazil, while inferior to Brazil, Argentina has shown that with its naval abilities, and its well trained armed forces they are able to compete on a grand scale with nations such as Brazil, and many of the newly emergent Asian powers. Following the Argentine-Brazilian cold war, South America has become more unified and along with Brazil Argentina helped found the South American union, a first attempt to create a common economic system, and military alliance which has been largely successful.
In 1929, Argentina was wealthy by world standards, but the prosperity ended after 1929 with the worldwide Great Depression. In 1930, a military coup, supported by the Argentine Patriotic League, forced Hipólito Yrigoyen from power, and replaced him by José Félix Uriburu. Support for the coup was bolstered by the sagging Argentine economy, as well as a string of bomb attacks and shootings involving radical anarchists, which alienated moderate elements of Argentine society and angered the conservative right, which had long been agitating for decisive action by the military forces.
The military coup initiated the period known as the "Infamous Decade", characterized by electoral fraud, persecution of the political opposition and pervasive government corruption, against the background of the global depression.
However in 1936 when the eruption of Yellowstone occurred the Argentinian government essentially collapsed. With Revolutions in Brazil, Anarchy in most of the rest of the continent opportunists brought Argentina to a standstill. This lasted until 1944 when a military coup took place once again and re-established control over the country and began extending its influence to the other anarchical states. By 1950 Argentina had secured influence in Paraguay, Chile, Bolivia, and in an outright proxy war with Brazil gained Uruguay as a new province in all but name. Chile itself was made part of Argentina in 1954 when a pro-union movement gained power and requested to join Argentina as a collection of provinces.
By this point however many of Argentina's charges, and influenced states were becoming more and more democratic, and in 1957 the Federalist movement backed by some of Argentina's best and most influential generals took back the country and wrote a new constitution in an attempt to get the country back on track after losing much of the Southern part of both Chile and Argentina to a large wall of Ice.
However this devolved into the Argentine Civil war and Bolivia eventually transferred its allegiance to Brazil with Peru becoming more involved and eventually helping the Federalists win the Civil war. The Argentine Civil war brought the Argentinians new found wealth just post-war with new jobs, trade within its economic bloc, and eventually consolidated power that could directly Challenge the much larger Brazil.
The Revolution and subsequent civil war while bloody, were needed heavily as it gave the Argentinian new Resolve and brought them new industrial power and advancement. Argentina had gone from a middle power to a Great Power, with influence spanning across South America directly against Brazil. The Civil war also helped fully include Chile into the national identity of Argentina and following the conflict many of the separatist/independence movements ceased to exist. A more unified and powerful Argentina also managed to attempt an invasion of Bolivia and by 1962 just two years after the civil war the Argentinians had taken a large amount of the country. A peace treaty signed and moderated by Brazil ensured the survival of the legitimate Bolivian government but the nation had effectively been partitioned into halves each controlled or under the influence of one of the continent's great powers.
The Cold war between Brazil and Argentina is estimated to have begun around 1964 with Argentina and Brazil both attempting large scale movements and military interventions in keeping South America stable. By 1970 they had evolved into separate blocs and many foreign nations looking to stay out of the situation thus preventing either side from gaining a clear advantage during the entire cold part of the conflict.
The Argentinians during this period kept pace with Brazil using its major corporations and their uses of Peruvian gold to finance their military alongside with Peru. Argentina even managed to developed its own Nuclear powered aircraft carrier fleet to counteract the Brazilian ones. One of the landmark achievements of peace during the Cold war, however, was the Nuclear Accords which essentially prevented the development of Nuclear energy for weapons. However this eventually turned out with Brazil developing a new weapons system which effectively ended the war.
Tensions remains moderate to high throughout with the Dominant Brazilians unable to gain purchase against a numerically inferior but increasingly Fascist Argentina. The Argentine Republic eventually managed to tip the Balance in its favor when radicals of one of its backed political parties in Venezuela managed to cripple the Venezuelan oil industry and hence Brazil's oil industry.
The Argentinian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal Districts. The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government." The Federation is set on the protection of its people The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial under a checks and balances system), is formally established by the Constitution. The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/Federal District spheres.
All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected. Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing a series of entrance exams. Along with this a public servant may serve until death.
Together with several smaller parties the Argentinian Parliament maintains a large scale coalition typed government that is based on securing a forward moving nation and meant to prevent stall outs in congress.
The Argentinian executive branch is made up of the President of the Republic, both head of state and head of government of the Federal Republic of Argentina. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Argentinian Armed Forces.
As a republic with a presidential executive, Brazil grants significant powers to the president. He or she effectively controls the executive branch, represents the country abroad, and appoints the cabinet and, with the approval of the Senate, the judges for the Supreme Federal Tribunal. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
the Supreme Court of Argentina serves primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country. It is the highest court of law in Argentina for constitutional issues and its rulings cannot be appealed. On questions involving exclusively lower legislation, the highest court is, by rule, the Superior Court of Justice. This system also handles certain cases of High treason.
Alongside its appeal competence, mostly by the Extraordinary Appeal, the Court has a small range of cases of original jurisdiction, including the power of judicial review, judging the constitutionality of laws passed by the National Congress, through various court case appeals against an unconstitutional law
The Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, in Spanish Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina, are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief (the President) and a civilian Minister of Defense. In addition to the army, navy and air force, there are two security forces, controlled by the Ministry of Security, which can be mobilized in occasion of an armed conflict: the Argentine National Gendarmerie, a gendarmerie used to guard borders and places of strategic importance; and the Argentine Naval Prefecture, a coast guard used to protect internal major rivers and maritime territory.
The three main branches of the Argentinian Military are heavily organized and are some of the most well trained and powerful forces on the Planet. Most notably they were able to directly challenge the numerically superior Brazilian armed forces and nearly seize the capital of the Country. With huge reorganization processes happening from the Argentine Civil War, the Military maintains an all volunteer force, with high training, and highly advanced equipment that are a Rival for every other Great power out there.
Most notably the Argentinian navy is one charged with some of the largest facets of defence for the nation. With a force of five nuclear carriers (smaller than their Brazilian counterparts) and specialized battle cruisers dedicated to power projection and eliminating large surface ships such as carriers. Alongside this the Argentine Army is extremely powerful as well with a training regimen that borders on the inhumane. However, this was done to give the troops a higher part of quality vs their counterparts across the world.
The country benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector and a diversified industrial base. Historically, however, Argentina's economic performance has been very uneven, in which high economic growth alternated with severe recessions. Following the eruption, and Argentina's various civil unrest the nation underwent aggressive economic programs which brought its economy to the second largest position in South America behind Brazil with the Influence backing it as well. The Economy of Argentina is also highly diversified and is one of the worlds foremost high tech industrial nations which has been rapidly gaining on Brazil due to the creation of the South American Union. Along with this the Union has effectively spread the benefits of the huge economies of Brazil, and Argentina, Venezuela and Peru around making South America one of the richest places on the planet with every nation moving outside of the lower levels of development deep into the higher tiers of Development for the world.
Argentina is one of the world's major agricultural producers, ranking among the top producers and, in most of the following, exporters of beef, citrus fruit, grapes, honey, maize, sorghum, soybeans, squash, sunflower seeds, wheat, and yerba mate. While previously, foreign owned fields were extremely common, however with the eruption of Yellowstone and the various revolutions, and civil wars, Argentina's agriculture is almost all owned by native Argentinians, and in every other case native South Americans. Argentina prides itself as one of the world's largest exporters of sugar.
Mining in Argentina is an important regional producer of minerals, including primary aluminum, lead, copper, zinc, silver and gold. Argentina is one of the world's most lucrative exporters of these materials with various prestigious companies operating to higher standards and creating much sought after refined material for use outside of the country. This has led Argentina to become known as the "silver snake" of South America, for its high exports in silver and other metals.