With a mainland of 3,264,012 sq km (1,260,242 sq mi), Argentina is the eight-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America and the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, however, this claims overlap with British claims.
A historical middle power and a prominent Latin American regional power, Argentina is one of the G-15 and G-20 major economies and Latin America's third largest.
The Spanish colonization began in 1512. Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas colony founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence (1810-1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, which ended with the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with San Miguel de Tucuman as its capital city. From then on -while massive European immigration waves radically reshaped its cultural and demographic outlook-Argentina enjoyed an historically almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity: by the early 20th century it already ranked as the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world. After 1930, however, and despite remaining among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century,] it descended into political instability and suffered periodic economic crisis that sank it back into underdevelopment. However, prosperity is rising again and the political issues are getting stabilized, mainly, after the end of the South American War and the recovery of the Falkland Islands.
Argentina is a federal constitutional republic and representative democracy. The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina, the country's supreme legal document. The seat of government is the city of Buenos Aires, as designated by Congress. Suffrage is universal, equal, secret and mandatory.
- Ciudad de San Miguel de Tucumán (federal district)
- State of Banda Oriental (Montevideo)
- State of Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires)
- State of Catamarca (San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca)
- State of Chaco (Resistencia)
- State of Chubut (Trelew)
- State of Córdoba (Córdoba)
- State of Corrientes (Corrientes)
- State of Entre Ríos (Paraná)
- State of Formosa (Formosa)
- State of Huentota (Huentota)
- State of Malvinas (Puerto Argentino)
- State of Jujuy (San Salvador de Jujuy)
- State of La Rioja (La Rioja)
- State of La Pampa (Santa Rosa)
- State of Misiones (Posadas)
- State of Neuquén (Neuquén)
- State of Pacífico (Valdivia)
- State of Río Negro (Viedma)
- State of Salta (Salta)
- State of San Juan (San Juan)
- State of San Luis (San Luis)
- State of Santa Cruz (Río Gallegos)
- State of Santiago del Estero (Santiago del Estero)
- State of Santa Fe (Santa Fe)
- State of Tierra del Fuego (Ushuaia)
- State of Tucumán (Concepción)
South American War
After Uruguay surrendered to Argentina in the South American War, the latter one annexed it as the Province of Banda Oriental. After the end of the war, and their victory over Chile, Argentina and Peru agreed in splitting it. Peru got the northern districts and Argentina got the southern districts, giving Argentina a Pacific coast, to the west and a border with Peru. Those districts were fused together as the Province of Pacífico.
The western part of the Tierra del Fuego Island was incorporated to the Provincee of Tierra del Fuego. The Falkland Islands split from the former state and became the Province of Malvinas.
Recovery of the Falkland Islands
Since 1982, the Falkland Islands were under de jure British occupation. The Argentinian government, desperately seeking to regain their claimed territory, offered to the British, 1.5 billion dollars and full and recognized jurisdiction over the South Georgia and Sandwich Islands, in exchange for the Falklands. The British government accepted the offer and, once again, the Falkland Islands were under Argentinian jurisdiction.