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Argentina is a region in South America. Formerly colonized by the Spanish Empire, who largely exterminated the native population, it became its own nation in 1816. After much internal conflict, Argentina appeared to have stabilized by the 1920's. But the onset of the Great Depression led to ruin and militarization, as it became the center in Latin America for anti-Americanism. Argentina created the Pan-American Alliance and sided with the Communist International in World War II. The United States conquered Argentina and annexed the nation. Argentina had the highest living standards in South America for the rest of the 20th century, but American rule nevertheless, weakened.
When the Great Depression set on in 1930, Argentina's formerly prosperous economy neared collapse. Jose Uriburu, an ambitious general took control. He ordered a complete militarization of Argentina's economy. However, Uriburu died only two years into his presidency. Socialist forces quickly mobilized and established Arturo Jauretche as President. Attempting to boost low employment rates and lower the number of impoverished Argentinians, Jaurethce expanded the Argentinian government, nationalized certain industries, and sought close ties with the worlds' single communist nation, the German People's Republic. The alliance was formalized in the Treaty of Munich. This alliance was encouraged by the large German population in Argentina, and German agents in Argentina who sought to promote world socialism. The Americans and the British who dominated the Western Hemisphere were blamed for the depression, and Jauretche's government hosted the rebel Latin American Union, who sought independence from the U.S. Arms were produced to be shipped to the rebels. Although Jauretche's government fell in 1936, this funding of rebels and friendship with Germany would continue.
The United States and Britain were increasingly vilified in Argentinian culture. As the U.S had occupied Central America, and occasionally threatened to expand southwards, America was viewed as a villainous aggressor. American companies attempting to expand into Argentina were subject to high tariffs and limiting laws, resulting in a withdrawal of U.S interests from Argentina. Additionally, since the assassination of US Secretary of State Henry Stimson in Argentina by Italian anarchist Severino Di Giovanni in 1928; relations with the U.S had been strained. The Latin American Union rebels set their government in exile in Buenos Aires. As such, many Argentinians joined their cause, and served as LAU volunteers abroad. Relations with the U.S quickly deteriorated, and both nations vied for dominance over the Western Hemisphere.
A more conservative government under Agustin Justo took power. Justo was not as enthusiastic about the alliance with Germany, but continued to militarize the nation, trying to model Argentina on the lines of Japan. The anti-Americanism of the nation made the army a more socialist organization. In 1938, Justo invaded Chile to support the National Socialist Movement, successfully establishing a puppet government, and giving Argentina access to Chile's valuable copper supplies, which were nationalized by Chile, removing American corporations. Afterwards, an alliance was formed between the two nations and Paraguay, the Pan-American alliance. Peru would join in 1939, fearing American expansion. Justo's troops, lead by the increasingly influential Pedro Ramirez marched into Uruguay, and annexed the nation, with much support. Justo promised once the U.S was beaten from Latin America, Argentina would be a glorious nation again. He began preparing the navy to dominate the Southern Pacific. Paraguay and Argentina invaded Bolivia in 1940, in order to expand Paraguay's gains in the First Chaco War. The Bolivians were at first overwhelmed, but Justo was shot by an anarchist.
World War II
As Argentina fell into uncertainty, General Pedro Ramirez quickly seized power. Ramirez had spent time in Europe examining the German and Italian armies, who were now storming Europe. As Paris fell to Communist troops, Ramirez laid forth plans which he hoped would carry Argentina to similar greatness. As Bolivia was divided with Paraguay, Argentina taking the Bolivian Andes, Ramirez contacted the Japanese Empire. He knew that the Japanese were planning an attack on Pearl Harbor, and being both allies with Germany, he suggested a joint attack on the Americans. On April 4th, 1941, P-AA troops crossed the border into American held Ecuador, killed the border security, and bombed Quito. Within a month, most of Ecuador and much of Southern Colombia had been taken. The P-AA also raided key U.S bases in the Caribbean. While the U.S maintained a large military to keep order in the colonies, Ramirez expected that it would be tied down in the colonies and with the Japanese assault. When Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S, Ramirez viewed victory as assured. But a long war lay ahead. The immediate battleground was Brazil, where a civil war had broken out between the anti- American rebels lead by Luis Carlos Prestes against the American allied dictatorship of Getulio Vargas. Vargas had lost popular support, and the P-AA, mostly Paraguay with Argentinian reinforcements, invaded, attacking Mato Grosso and the South Region. But the U.S quickly armed the Brazilian military, who pushed back the rebels, forcing the P-AA to withdraw, though they maintained a presence in Rio Grande del Sul and the Pantanal lowlands into 1942.
Ramirez then focused on the naval war, and supply routes to Japan. While the Japanese pushed for control of various islands, the P-AA hoped to seize control of the Southern Pacific, and meet with the Japanese to cut off the Americans, forcing them back into North America, where the combined forces could press upon the Americans, either forcing them to surrender,or to divide their territory. Both sides would conduct heavy raids on enemy shipments throughout the course of the war. The recently completed Argentinian navy seized control of the Falklands from the British. The British managed to hold off for a few days, but the Falklands eventually fell. With control of the Falklands the P-AA could now hold off any U.S assault on the Argentinian coast. The P-AA then attempted an assault on the Galapagos Islands under American control. The P-AA managed to take the American base, but took heavy losses. The Americans soon escorted their shipping with convoys, and attacked Argentinian subs and ships, leading to heavy damage. The P-AA needed to block the American navies from the Atlantic and the Pacific. Ramirez decided to attack the Panama Canal in order to permanently cut off U.S supply routes. LAU rebels would simultaneously attack Panama City., while land forces would then march north, reinforce the LAU, and march up Central America to aid Mexican rebels in an attack on the American heartland. The attack was a colossal failure. The Americans had cracked the code for the attack, and prepared for an ambush. The LAU rebels were killed before they could attack, and the P-AA navy was overwhelmed by American battleships. The P-AA retreated south, to Lima. Thwarted by U.S forces, Ramirez decided to assault Polynesia, and join with the superior Japanese forces, destroying American control of the Pacific, and eventually attack the Western coast. As P-AA forces mobilized on Easter Island, American spies decoded the plan. American planes bombarded the P-AA navy, mostly Argentinian but with some Chilean and Peruvian ships. American battleships then destroyed the remnants. This battle effectively ended the vision of Argentinian maritime dominance, and pushed the South Americans on the defensive. The Galapagos and the Falklands were retaken, and the P-AA pushed from Colombia.
The Americans continually pressed upon Argentina, attacking their shipping, and bombing their cities. Industrial capacity fell, as did the the quality and quantity of the military. Lima was occupied by Allied forces in October 1942, forcing out the already strained Peru out of the war. The Allies then began to liberate occupied Bolivia. Argentinian forces were pushed out, by U.S and Bolivian rebel forces. Argentina was only kept from total defeat by allied occupation in other theatres. Brazil began to invade Paraguay, and attacked Uruguay. Argentina managed to push back the Brazilians, but at a heavy cost. The U.S won the Battle of Santiago in February 1943, cutting Chile in half, and reducing its army to a few scattered militias. When General Ramirez and the Argentinian command were killed when the Americans took Buenos Aires, Juan Peron took command. The Americans had occupied Tierra del Fuego from a base in Antarctica, and several beachheads along the Argentinian coast. As the Allies pressed into Argentina, Peron adopted the army to guerrilla warfare. The army operated by night, and based themselves in villages. They gave limited resistance in Patagonia, but based themselves in the Pampas. LAU troops who were based in Argentina were particularly useful in this regard. The U.S could have attempted a blitzkrieg, but did not have the manpower necessary. When Cordoba fell in 1945, the P-AA was completely destroyed. The Latin American Congress, headed by Lazaro Cardenas, were captured and executed. The remnants of the Argentinian army continued to fight under Juan Peron, causing heavy damage, but with his capture and execution in Guantanamo Bay in 1947, the resistance was crushed. Argentina was annexed by the U.S, and ceased to exist as an independent nation.
Although guerrilla resistance continued throughout the 1940's, the Americans solidified their control. Argentina was placed under military governor John Davies, who began to rebuild Argentinian infrastructure. Huge amounts of American troops continued to occupy Argentina, to prevent threatened rebellions. The nation was slowly pacified. Cities on the coast such as Buenos Aires and Montevideo became American strongholds, and a large base was constructed in Tierra del Fuego, giving the U.S control over Argentinian commerce. U.S police soon began a harsh regime in the cities, creating a corrupt oligarchy. American executives took over Argentinian business. By 1955, when the last Argentinian major cattle firm was bought out by American farmers, Argentina had fallen under the complete control of a small American elite. All those who opposed the Americans were placed under arrest. In 1957, ten years after annexation, a state Legislature was finally created, though voting rights were given only to Americans and certain Argentinians. When secret labor unions went on strike to protest low wages and terrible working conditions, U.S troops crushed the protests. A large manufacturing base was established in Argentina, helping supply the Americans with materials needed for a permanent state of war. Argentina became a crown province in the American Empire, and local resistance was largely crushed.