Kingdom Of Majorca
Regne de Majorca (Catalan)
Timeline: Principia Moderni II (Map Game)
Flag of Balearic Islands Coat of Arms of Balearic Islands
Flag Coat of Arms
Hispano-French Empire PMII
Kingdom of Majorca in dark blue
(and largest city)
Language Catalan, Occitan
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Constitutional Monarchy
King Guillén VI Folc de Cardona
Population 300,000 
Established 1231, established by Jaume I of Aragon
1876, dissociated from the Kingdom of Aragon.
Currency Real
Kingdom Of Aragon
Reino d'Aragón (Aragonese)/Regne d'Aragó (Catalan)
Timeline: Principia Moderni II (Map Game)
Flag of Aragon Official Coat of Arms of Aragon
Flag Coat of Arms
Hispano-French Empire PMII
Kingdom of Aragon in orange
(and largest city)
Language Navarro-Aragonese
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Constitutional Monarchy
King Artal II de Alagón
Population 1,300,000 
Established late 8th century, as County of Aragon, vassal of the Carolingian Empire
1035, as Kingdom of Aragon
1137, personal union wth the County of Barcelona
1602, re-established under the first Catalan Revolt
1656, re-established after the Second Aragonese Revolt.
1876, dissociated from the County of Barcelona.
Currency Real
Kingdom Of Barcelona
Regne de Barcelona (Catalan)
Timeline: Principia Moderni II (Map Game)
Flag of Catalonia Crown of Aragon COA
Flag Coat of Arms
Hispano-French Empire PMII
Kingdom of Barcelona in red
(and largest city)
Language Catalan
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Constitutional Monarchy
King Joan IX Ramon de Cardona
Population 5,200,000 
Established early 9th century, as County of Barcelona
1137, personal union with the Kingdom of Aragon
1602, re-established under the first Catalan Revolt
1656, re-established after the Second Aragonese Revolt.
1876, dissociated from the Kingdom of Aragon.
Currency Real

The Crown of Aragon is a nation in Europe composed of the Kingdoms of Aragon, Majorca and Valencia, aside of the Principality of Catalonia. It borders the kingdoms of Murcia, Navarra, Toledo and Castille to the west, all of them except for Navarra being part of the Castillian Crown, and France to the north.Currently it is divided into the Kingdoms of Aragon, Barcelona and Majorca.


Aragon was originally a Carolingian feudal county around the city of Jaca, which in the first half of the 9th century became a vassal state of the kingdom of Pamplona (later Navarra), its own dynasty of counts ending without male heir in 922. The name Aragón is the same of the river Aragón, which flows by Jaca. It might derive from the Basque "Aragoi" meaning "high valley".

On the death of Sancho III of Navarra in 1035, the Kingdom of Navarre was divided into three parts: Navarra with some Basque lands, Castile and Sobrarbe, Ribagorza and Aragon. Sancho's son Gonzalo inherited Sobrarbe and Ribargorza, whereas his illegitimate son Ramiro received Aragon, but Gonzalo was killed soon after and all the land he owned went to his brother Ramiro, thus becoming the first de facto king of Aragon, although he never used that title.

By defeating his brother, García Sánchez III of Navarra, Ramiro achieved virtual independence for Aragon. His son Sancho Ramírez, who also inherited the kingdom of Navarra, was the first to call himself "King of the Aragonians and Pamplonese". As the Aragonian domains expanded to the south, conquering land from Al Andalus, the capital city moved from Jaca to Huesca (1096), and later to Zaragoza (1118). After the death of Alfonso the Battler in 1135, the split between the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon was final. By 1285 the southernmost areas of Aragon had been taken from the Moors.

The Aragonese empire originated in 1137, when the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona (with the County of Provence) merged by dynastic union by the marriage of Raymond Berenguer V of Barcelona and Petronilla of Aragon; their titles were combined in the person of their son Alfonso II of Aragon, who ascended to the throne in 1162. This union respected the existing institutions and parliaments of both territories. Although the County of Barcelona was the wealthier, given its position on the Mediterranean, the combined state was known as Aragon, given its higher ranking as a kingdom due to lineage from Imperator Hispaniae Sancho III of Navarra. Also Petronilla's father King Ramiro, known as "The Monk" for his incapacity to rule the Aragonese troops, was the youngest brother of all three. He was raised in the Saint Pons de Thomières Monastery in what today is Toulouse. His brothers Peter I and Alfonso I El Batallador (The Battler) who re-conquered Murcia had died in battle. Then, knowing nothing about war he decided to make an alliance with his neighbour Raymond Berenguer V the Count of Barcelona. Raymond was forced in the wedding contract to recognise Ramiro II as "My King, My Lord, and my Father" he became part of the Aragonese dynasty. Then Raymond was entitled as "Prince of the Aragonese" (Chief of the Aragonese Army).

Raymond Berenguer V of Barcelona, the new ruler of the united dynasty, still called himself Count of Barcelona and merely "Prince" of Aragon.

Alfonso II tried to conquer Valencia when favourable circumstances offered, but the opportunity was lost when Sancho VI of Navarra invaded Aragon. Alfonso II signed the treaties of Cazola with Alfonso VIII of Castile in order to secure the Aragonese frontiers. The treaty also delimited anew their zones of prospective Moorish conquest—the Kings of Aragon were to have Valencia, leaving Murcia to Castile.

From the 9th century, the dukes of Aquitaine, the counts of Foix, the counts of Toulouse and the Aragonese kings rivalled in their attempts at controlling the various pays of Occitania. The Crown of Aragon was widespread in the area that is now south of France, under the control of vassal local princes, such as the Counts of Toulouse. The rebellion of the Cathars or Albigensians rejected the authority and the teachings of the Catholic Church and led to the loss of the southern France possessions. Pope Innocent III called upon Phillip II of France to suppress the Albigensians — The Albigensian Crusade, which led to bring the Occitania region under the control of the King of France, and the Capetian dynasty from northern France.

Pedro II returned from Las Navas in autumn 1212 to find that Simon de Montfort had conquered Toulouse, exiling Count Raymond VI of Toulouse, who was Peter's brother-in-law and vassal. Peter's army crossed the Pyrenees and arrived at Muret accompanied by Raymond of Toulouse's forces, in September 1213 to confront Montfort's army.

The Battle of Muret began on September 12, 1213. The Aragonese forces were disorganised and disintegrated under the assault of Montfort's squadrons. Pedro himself was caught in the thick of fighting, and died as a result of a foolhardy act of bravado. So, the nobility of Toulouse, vassals of the Crown of Aragon, was defeated. The conflict culminated in the Treaty of Meaux-Paris in 1229, in which it was agreed the integration of the Occitan territory in the French crown.

King Jaume I (13th century) started the era of expansion, by conquering and incorporating Majorca and a good part of the Kingdom of Valencia to the Crown. With the Treaty of Corbeil (1258), which was based upon the principle of natural frontiers, French claims over Catalonia came to an end. The general principle was clear, that Aragonese influence north of the Pyrenees was to cease. Jaume I had realized that wasting his forces and distracting his energies in attempts to keep a footing in France could only end in disaster. On January 1266, Jaume I besieged and captured Murcia, settled his own men, mostly Catalans, there; and handed Murcia over to Castile by the treaty of Cazorla.

Majorca, together with the counties of Cerdanya and Roussillon, and the city of Montpellier, was held independently from 1276 to 1279 by Jaume II of Majorca as a vassal of the Crown after that date, becoming a full member of the Crown of Aragon in 1344.

Valencia was made a new kingdom with its own institutions, and so was the third member of the crown—the legal status of Majorca was not as consistent as those of Aragón, Catalonia.

On 1282, the Sicilians rose up against the second dynasty of the Angevins on the Sicilian Vespers and massacred the garrison soldiers. Pedro III responded to their call, and landed in Trapani to an enthusiastic welcome five months later. This caused Pope Martin IV to excommunicate the king, place Sicily under interdict, and offer the kingdom of Aragon to a son of Philip III of France.

When Pedro III refused to impose the Charters of Aragon in Valencia, the nobles and towns united in Zaragoza to demand a confirmation of their privileges, which the king had to accept on 1283. Thus began the Union of Aragon, which developed the power of the Justícia to mediate between the king and the Aragonese rich men.

When Jaume II of Aragon—not to be confused with Jaume II of Majorca—completed the conquest of the kingdom of Valencia, the Crown of Aragon established itself as one of the major powers in Europe.

By grant of Pope Boniface VIII to Jaume II, the kingdoms of Sardinia and Corsica were added to the Crown in 1297, though it would not be for more than a century that they were brought under control. By marriage of Pedro IV to Maria of Sicily, the Kingdom of Sicily, as well as the duchies of Athens and Neopatria, were added to the Crown in 1381. The Greek possessions were permanently lost to Nerio I Acciaioli in 1388 and Sicily was dissociated in the hands of Martin I from 1395 to 1409, but the Kingdom of Naples was added finally in 1442 by conquest of Alfonso V, and lost in 1453.

The King's possessions outside of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands were ruled by proxy through local elites as petty kingdoms, rather than subjected directly to a centralised government. They were more an economic part of the Crown of Aragon than a political one.

The fact that the King was keen on settling new kingdoms instead of merely expanding the existing kingdoms was a part of a power struggle that pitted the interests of the king against those of the existing nobility. This process was also under way in most of the European states that successfully effected the transition to the Early Modern state. Thus, the new territories gained from the Moors — namely Valencia and Majorca — were usually given fueros — Catalan furs — as an instrument of self-government in order to limit the power of nobility in these new acquisitions and, at the same time, increase their allegiance to the monarchy itself. The trend in the neighbouring kingdom of Castile was similar, both kingdoms giving impetus to the Reconquista by granting self-government either to cities or territories, instead of placing the new territories under the rule of nobility.

In 1410, King Martin I died without surviving descendants. As a result, by the Pact of Caspe, Ferdinand of Antequera from the Castilian dynasty of Trastámara, received the Crown of Aragon as Ferrnando I of Aragon.

Later, his grandson King Carles I of Aragon recovered the northern Catalan counties—Roussillon and Cerdagne — which had been lost to France and also brought the Kingdom of Navarra under an personal union with Aragon. However, in 1500, Aragon entered into a personal union with the electorate of Brandenburg, which eventually culminated in two revolts, in 1602 and 1656, only the 1656 one being successful. However, Aragon was brought into Portuguese suzerainty after a war sparked with Castille over parts of Navarra.

Nobiliarchic divisions (as of 1748)


  • Aliaga - Joan VI de Vargas (1700-)
  • Cardona - Ramon X Folc de Cardona (1676-)
  • Gandía - Francesc VI de Borja (1706-)
  • Híjar - Ramon VI Fernandez de Hijar (1693-)
  • Montblanc - appanage of the crown
  • Segorbe - appanage of the crown
  • Soma - Francesc Folc de Cardona
  • Villahermosa - Josep II de Gurrea (1699-)


  • Aitona - Pere V de Montcada (1690-)
  • Albayda - Jimeno III de Milá (1695-)
  • Ariza - Jaume de Palafox (1692-)
  • Bellpuig - Guillèn XII de Anglesola (1695-)
  • Benavites - Pedro VI Exarch de Martorell (1707-)
  • Camarasa - Diego III de los Cobos (1700-)
  • Cañizar - held by the Dukes of Villahermosa
  • Falces - Antonio III Carrillo de Peralta (1690-)
  • Guadalest - Joan III Folc de Cardona (1675-)
  • La Casta - Joan IV Aznar Pardo de La Casta (1674-)
  • Martorell - Pere II de Requensens (1701-)
  • Montpellier - Jaume II de Montepellier (1690-)
  • Mora - Juan X Fernández de Heredia (1688-)
  • Navarrés - Pere IV de Tolsá (1694-)
  • Osera - Garcia II Funes de Villalpando (1681-)
  • San Felices de Aragón - Joan III de Moncayo (1710-)
  • Sástago - Artal X de Alagón (1705-)
  • Villatorcas - Joan de Castellví (1691-)
  • Villaverde - Josep Sanz de Luna (1662-)


  • Albatera - Ramon VII Rocafull (1690-)
  • Alcudia - Gonzalo V Escrivá de Romaní (1700-)
  • Almenara - Gaspar VI de Próxita (1700-)
  • Anglesola - Joan II de Palau (1693-)
  • Anna - Joan V de Borja-Lanzol (1692-)
  • Ampurias - appanage of the crown
  • Andorra - co-ruled by the Bishop of Urgell and the Count of Castellbò
  • Aranda - Miguel III Ximénez de Urrea (1685-)
  • Buñol - Gaspar III Mercader (1690-)
  • Carlet - Joaquim II de Castellví (1691-)
  • Castellbò - Pere IV de Foix-Grailly (1696-)
  • Castellvell - Ramon X Desfar (1690-)
  • Cerdanya - appanage of the crown
  • Cervera - appanage of the crown
  • Cocentaina - Pere II Pérez de Corella (1690-)
  • Elda - Francesc III Coloma (1698-)
  • Fenollet - Pere XVII Sexach de Fenollet (1694-)
  • Fuentes - held by the Marchesses of Mora
  • Guimerá - Felipe VIII Trencavel de Castre (1704-)
  • Jaraco - Antonio II Almunia (1695-)
  • Lécera - Roger X de Lauria (1700-)
  • Llobera - Ferran VI de Llobera (1688-)
  • Luna - Josep II d'Arborea (1680-)
  • Modica - Guerau X de Cabrera (1664-)
  • Morata de Jalón - held by the Marchesses of Villaverde
  • Navalmoral - Baltasar V Barroso de Ribera (1685-)
  • Narbonne - Guillèn VIII de Monforte (1689-)
  • Nules - Gilabert XIII de Centelles (1697-)
  • Oliva - held by the Counts of Nules
  • Osona - appanage of the crown
  • Palamós - held by the Marchesses of Martorell
  • Palafells - Pere VII de Palafells (1690-)
  • Pallars - appanage of the crown
  • Peralada - Dalmau XI de Rocaberti (1693-)
  • Pinós - Felipe X Galceran de Pinós (1699-)
  • Prades - held by the Dukes of Cardona
  • Ribagorza - appanage of the crown
  • Roussillon - appanage of the crown
  • Santa Coloma - Dalmau V de Queralt (1704-)
  • Sinarcas - Gaspar VII Ladrón de Villanueva (1694-)
  • Sobrarbe - appanage of the crown
  • Sumarcácer - Ignacio Crespí de Valldaura (1681-)
  • Tortosa - held by the Marchesses of Montpellier
  • Toulouse - Roger III Trencavel de Béziers (1695-)
  • Urgell - appanage of the crown
  • Valldefogona - Joan IV Galceran de Pinós-Fenollet (1690-)
  • Villafranqueza - Martí IV Franquesa (1703-)
  • Zavellá - Joan VI de Boixadors (1693-)



County of Barcelona

Non-dynastic Counts
  • Berà I (801-820) - son of Guilhèm I of Razès, brother of Bello of Razès,[citation needed] also Count of Girona, Besalú, Ausona (812/817-820), Razès and Conflent (790-820), deposed.
  • Rampó (821-1826) - also Count of Girona, and Besalú
  • Bernat I (826-832/836-844) - son of William of Toulouse, also margrave of Septimania (834-835) and Imperial Chamberlain (829-830), deposed. Later restored and executed on orders of Charles the Bald.
  • Berenguer I (832-835) - also Count of Toulouse.
  • Sunifred I (844-848) - son or son-in-law of Belló of Carcassone, also Count of Ausona, Besalú, Girona, Narbonne, Agde, Béziers, Lodève, Melgueil, Cerdanya, Urgell, Conflent and Nîmes.
  • Guillem I (848-850) - son of Bernat I, also Count of Toulouse (844-850), rebelled and was killed.
  • Aleran (850-852) - jointly with Isembart, also Count of Ampurias and Roussillon and Margrave of Septimania.
  • Isembart (850-852) - son of Guerin of Provence, jointly with Aleran, also Count of Ampurias, and Roussillon and Margrave of Septimania.
  • Odalric (852-858) - son of Hunfrid, Margrave of Istria, also Count of Girona, Rosselló, Empúries and Margrave of Septimania.
  • Humfrid (858-864) - son of Hunfrid II, Duke of Rhaetia, also Count of Girona, Empúries, Roussillon and Narbonne, Margrave of Gothia.
  • Bernat II (865-878) - son of Bernard of Poitiers, also Count of Girona and Margrave of Gothia and Septimania, rebelled.
House of Barcelona
  • Guifré I (830-897) - son of Sunifred I.
  • Guifré II Borrell I (874-911)
  • Sunyer (877-947)
  • Borrell II (927-992)
  • Miró (930-966) - reuled jointly with Borrell II.
  • Ramón I Borrell III (972-1017)
  • Berenguer II (1000-1035)
  • Ramón II (1023-1076)
  • Ramón III (1053-1082)
  • Berenguer III (1055-1097)
  • Ramón IV (1082-1131)
  • Ramon V (1114-1162)


County of Aragon
  • Oriol (before 802-809)
  • Aznar I (809-820)
  • García I (820-833) - installed by Iñigo I of Pamplona.
  • Galindo I (833-844)
  • Galindo II (844-867) - restored after accepting suzerainty of Pamplona.
  • Aznar II (867-893)
  • Galindo III (893-922)
  • Andregoto (922-925) - married Garcia III of Pamplona. After 925, the kings of Pamplona also are Counts of Aragon.
Kingdom of Aragon
  • Ramiro I (1015-1069)
  • Sancho I (1042-1097)
  • Pedro I (1067-1104)
  • Alfonso I (1072-1134)
  • Ramiro II (1075-[1134-1137]-1157)
  • Petronilla (1136-1173)

Crown of Aragon

House of Barcelona

  • Alfons II (1157-1196)
  • Pere II (1178-1213)
  • Jaume I (1208-1276)
  • Pere III (1240-1285)
  • Alfons III (1265-1291)
  • Jaume II (1267-1327)
  • Alfons IV (1299-1336)
  • Pere IV (1319-1387)
  • Joan I (1350-1396)
  • Martí I (1356-1410)
Kingdom of Majorca
  • Jaume II (1243-[1276-1286/1295-]1311)
  • Alfons I (1265-1291)
  • Jaume III (1267-[1291-1295]1327)
  • Sanç I (1276-1324)
  • Jaume IV (1315-1349)
  • Jaume V (1335-1375)
  • Isabel I (1337-1406)

House of Trastámara

  • Ferran I (1380-1416)
  • Alfons V (1396-1458)
  • Carles I (1421-1466)
  • Joan II (1454-1500)
  • Blanca (1457-1513)

House of Hohenzollern

  • Guillèn II (1480-1520)
  • Frederic I (1505-1536)
  • Frederic II (1508-1559)
  • Lluís I (1527-1568)
  • Guillèn III (1545-1588)
  • Lluís II (1564-1591)
  • Carles II (1567-1601)
  • Carles III (1586-1602)
  • Guillèn IV (1565-1604)
  • Frederic III (1585-1606)
  • Lluís III (1587-1635)
  • Guillèn V (1608-1640)
  • Lluís IV (1610-[1640-1656]-1665)

House of Borja

  • Francesc I (1596-1664)
  • Francesc II (1626-1665)
  • Francesc III (1649-1670)
  • Isabel (1653-1716)

House of Anglesola

  • Alfons VI (1651-1716)
  • Pere VI (1671-1739)
  • Joan IV (1700-1758)
  • Ferran II (1727-1760)
  • Joan V (1752-1774)
  • Ramon II (1734-1786)
  • Constance (1722-1788)

House of Cardona

  • Ramon III (1720-1790)
  • Joan VI (1750-1817)
  • Alfons VII (1782-1834)
  • Jaume III (1773-1835)
  • Ramon IV (1756-1838)
  • Joan VII (1778-1844)
  • Joan VIII (1800-1866)
  • Joan IX (1820-[1876]1891)


Kings of Barcelona

House of Cardona
  • Joan IX (1820-1891)
  • Pere VII (1842-1895)
  • Alfons VIII (1864-1927)

Kings of Majorca

House of Cardona
  • Guillén VI (1847-1903)
  • Isabel III Mildred (1880-1947)
House of Lusignan
  • Aimery I (1878-1952)

Kings of Aragon

House of Alagón
  • Artal I (1796-1877)
  • Salvador I (1818-1882)
  • Artal II (1840-1903)
  • Salvador II (1863-1925)
  • Ramiro III (1885-1950)

Royal Family

Domingo de Borja (1358-?)

  • Alfonso de Borja (Pope Calixtus III) (1378-1458)
  • Isabel de Borja (c. 1400-1468) - Jofre Lanzol (c.1400-1437)
    • Rodrigo Lanzol de Borja, Bishop of Albano (1431-1503)
      • Pere I, Duke of Gandía (1467-1484)
      • Joan I, Duke of Gandía (1474-1497)
        • Joan II of Gandía (1495-1543)
          • Francesc I of Gandía (1510-1572)
            • Carles I of Gandía (1530-1592)
              • Francesc II of Gandía (1551-1595)
                • Francesc III of Gandía (1573-1632)
                  • Francesc I of Aragón/IV of Gandía (1596-1662)
                    • Francesc II of Aragón (1626-1665) - Isabel de Montpellier (1627-1687)
                      • Francesc III of Aragón (1649-1670)
                      • Isabel of Aragón (1653-1716) - Alfons VI of Aragon/III de Anglesola (1651-1718)
                        • Pere VI of Aragon (1671-1732) - Maria of Portugal (1671-1723)
                          • Maria (1690-)
                          • Pere (1693)
                          • Urraca (1694)
                          • Isabel (1696-)
                          • Teresa (1698-)
                          • Joan IV of Aragon (1700-1758) - Maria Fernández de Híjar (1702-)
                            • Alfons (1721)
                            • Constance of Aragon (1722-1788) - Ramon III Of Aragon/XI Folc de Cardona (1720-1790)
                              • Ramon (1746)
                              • Isabel (1748-)
                              • Joan VI of Aragon (1750-1817) - Margarida de Montcada (1753-)
                                • Constance (1777-)
                                • Joana (1779-)
                                • Alfons VII of Aragon (1782-1834) - Isabel de Borja (1783-)
                              • Jaume (1752-)
                              • Constança (1754-)
                              • Ramon XII Folc de Cardona/IV of Aragon (1756-1838) - Ana de Vargas (1757-1815)
                                • Joan VIII Ramon de Cardona/VII of Aragon (1778-1844) - Felipa Trencavel (1781-1870)
                                  • Joan VIII of Aragon (1800-1868)
                                  • Ramon XIII Folc de Cardona (1803-1880)
                                  • Felipa (1806-)
                                  • Roger (1810-)
                            • Maria (1724-)
                            • Ferran II Of Aragon (1727-1760) - Felipa Trencavel (1728-)
                              • Felipa (1747)
                            • Isabel (1729-)
                            • Joan of Aragon (1732-1760) - Maria Rocafull (1733-)
                              • Joan V of Aragon (1752-1774) - Margarida de Montcada (1753-)
                                • Joan (1772)
                                • Margarida (1774)
                              • Joana (1755-1756)
                              • Sanç (1758)
                            • Ramon II Berenguer of Aragon (1734-1786)
                            • Dulce (1737-)
                        • Guillèn XI d'Anglesola (1673-1744)
                          • Guillèn XII d'Anglesola (1695-1764)
                            • Berenguer VIII d'Anglesola (1717-1780)
                              • Alfons IV d'Anglesola (1740-1811)
                                • Berenguer IX d'Anglesola (1763-1830)
                                  • Guillèn XIII d'Anglesola (1788-1844)
                                    • Berenguer X d'Anglesola (1808-1881)
                        • Isabel (1676-)
                        • Constance (1678-)
                        • Sancho (1679-)
                        • Alfons (1682-)
                        • Maria (1684-)
                    • Joan III of Gandía (1629-1702)
                      • Francesc V of Gandía (1653-1716)
                        • Pere II of Gandía (1673-1740)
                          • Francesc VI of Gandía (1706-1763)
                            • Carles II of Gandía (1727-1781)
                              • Pere III of Gandía (1755-1824)
                                • Francesc VII of Gandía (1785-1828)
                                  • Pere IV of Gandía (1810-1844)
                                  • Francesc VIII of Gandía (1812-1877)
                                  • Joan IV of Gandía (1814-1900)
                                    • Francesc IX of Gandía (1839-1910)
                                      • Francesc X of Gandía (1870-1924)
                                • Isabel de Borja (1783-1813) - Alfons VII of Aragon (1782-1834)
                    • Ana de Borja (1640-1711) - Alfonso XIV of Castille (1638-1694)

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