Arabia (Arabic: عربية, Arabiya) officially the Caliphate of Arabia (Arabic: العربية الخلافة, Al-Khilāfah al-Arabiya) is a sovereign state in Western Asia constituting the Arabian Peninsula and the southern part of former Iraq. Since other Arab states fell in the last 30 years, Arabia is the only Arab state in the world, and the only nation with Caliphate as their government. Arabia is bordered by Israel, Assyria and Iran to the north, and shares marine borders with Pakistan. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid inhospitable desert or barren landforms.
The history of the Arabian Peninsula goes back to the beginnings of human habitation in Arabia up to 130,000 years ago. In pre-Islamic times, apart from a small number of urban trading settlements (such as Mecca and Medina), most of Arabia was populated by nomadic tribal societies in the inhospitable desert. In the early 7th century, the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity.