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The Federal Republic of Antioquia (Spanish: República Federal de Antioquia, also called Antioquia Federal) was a short-lived mafia-controlled state centered in Antioquia and ruled by the Medellín Cartel. It basically existed throughout Pablo Escobar's ascent to power in Medellín and surrounding areas.
The ideas of an independent, federalised Greater Antioquia predated Doomsday by almost ten years. On the 1970's, Antioquia and the Eje Cafetero (in Spanish, Coffee Producers Axis) produced more than half of Colombia's industrial power, most of which was taken by the heavily centralised Bogotá. This caused a lot of unrest in what at the time was called Greater Antioquia, as the Cundinamarca-Boyacá cultural group had nothing to do with the Paisa one.
Pablo Escobar, who had recently been able to buy his way out of prison, and angry with his government, decided to try to create a nation in Antioquia, where he had a stronger grip on things. He knew he had to regain a base on drug dealing if he was to regain the power and money he had lost in jail.
Fortunately for him, he found a new, strong market in the new "strong nations" on Latin America: the United States of Mexico and the United American Republic. Many of the drug traffickers and consumers had escaped from the US Southwest in Doomsday, and fled into Mexico, and as such, Pablo Escobar was able to re-create a profitable drug-dealing industry. Similar things had happened in the UAR, where English immigrants, mostly Falklanders, continued to buy cocaine.
Soon, the Medellín Cartel had a strong source of income. It started buying the few remaining positions in Antioquian government, and most of the Antioquia-depending departments, too.