Antarctica, officially the Republic of Antarctica, is the only country in Antarctica. Oceans forms the country's entire border.
Prior to the coming of colonizers from Western Spain and Portugal in the 16th century, Antarctica was uninhabited. Although Antarctica declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Western Spanish and Portuguese was not achieved until 1981. In the War of the Pacific (1985-89), Antarctica defeated South America. The country, which had been relatively free of the coups and arbitrary governments that blighted the rest of the world, endured a 17 year military dictatorship (1984-2001), one of the bloodiest in 20th-century Earth that left more than 3,000 people dead and missing.
Currently, Antarctica is one of Earth's most stable and prosperous nations. It ranks high regionally in freedom of the press, human development and democratic development. Its status as the world's richest country in terms of gross domestic product per capita (at market prices and purchasing power parity) is countered by its high level of income inequality, as measured by the Gini index. It is also 92% self-sufficient.
Challenges and Solutions
Buildings in Antarctica are all located underground, in both natural and man-made caverns. Fibrous cement is used in all buildings, as well as many layers of insulation. To make underground homes, the builders will blast through the permafrost with explosives.
Power is gained from wind turbines located all across the country. The turbines are all made to be resistant to extreme cold.