Anglo-Soviet Agreement
Mutual Assistance Agreement Between the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Type of treaty Military alliance
July 25, 1939
London, United Kingdom
Signatories Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom

Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955) Soviet Union

Languages English

The Anglo-Soviet Agreement was a formal military alliance signed by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union against Germany on July 25, 1939; one month before the Soviet invasion of Ukraine. Both powers pledged to assist each other and not make separate peace with Germany.


On July 25, the same day the German–Soviet talks ended, the Mutual Assistance Agreement Between the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was signed. The agreement contained promises of mutual military assistance between the nations in the event either was attacked by some "European country". The United Kingdom, sensing a dangerous trend of German expansionism, sought to prevent German aggression by this show of solidarity. In a secret protocol of the pact, the United Kingdom offered assistance in the case of an attack on the Soviet Union specifically by Germany or Italy, while in the case of attack by other countries the parties were required to "consult together on measures to be taken in common". Both the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union were bound not to enter agreements with any other third countries which were a threat to the other.

Terms of the Agreement

The treaty was drawn up and signed in the English language and later translated into Russian, whereupon agreement between parties was established and authenticity recognized.

According to the Anglo-Soviet Agreement, the following conditions were settled upon by both governments of the United Kingdom and Russian Socialist Soviet Republic:

  1. Refrainment from hostile actions and/or undertakings against the other party, including:
    • Direct or indirect propaganda against the opposing government outside of the borders of each respective country.
    • Encouragement of other countries to undertake hostile action against the opposing government.
    • Allowance of citizens of the opposing country to return home.
  2. Removal of trade and economic blockades existing between the two aforementioned countries.
    • The only exception would be the regulation of the trade in arms and ammunition.
  3. The opposing country's ships, with all respective contents including crew and cargo, receive respective privileges and treatments established in accord to all foreign merchant ships. In addition:
    • The British government's allowance of free naval navigation to Russian ships corresponding to the freedoms entitled to ships of other nationalities.
    • Information pertaining to the placement of mines be given to the opposing country in order to help establish safe passage for the ships of each respective country.
  4. Each respective country may nominate a number of its nationals to ensure proper effect be given to the Agreement.
    • Persons admitted to withhold this Agreement are at liberty to communicate freely with their respective country.
    • Passports and documents of identity shall be treated in the other country as consistent with those issued or certified by authorities of a recognized foreign government.

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