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Andrew Jackson (Jacksonian)

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{| border=1 align=right cellpadding=4 cellspacing=0 width=300 style="margin: 0 0 1em 1em; border: 1px #aaaaaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"

| colspan="2" style="background: #E8E8F8; text-align: center;" | Andrew Jackson |- | colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | Andrew Jackson |- | colspan="2" style="background: #E8E8F8; text-align: center;" | 7th President of the United States |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 | colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | In office:
March 4, 1829 – August 14, 1834 |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Vice President:|| John C. Calhoun(1829-1832)
None(1832-1833)
Martin Van Buren(1833-1834) |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Preceded by:|| John Quincy Adams |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Succeeded by:|| George Poindexter |- | colspan="2" style="background: #E8E8F8; text-align: center;" | 1st Territorial Governor of Florida Military Governor |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 | colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | In office:
March 10, 1821 – November 12, 1821 |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Preceded by:|| None (Spanish territory) |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Succeeded by:|| William P. Duval |- | colspan="2" style="background: #E8E8F8; text-align: center;" | United States Senator from Tennessee |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 | colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | In office:
September 26, 1797 – April, 1798 |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Preceded by:|| William Cocke |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Succeeded by:|| Daniel Smith |- | colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | In office:
March 4, 1823 – October 14, 1825 |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Preceded by:|| John Williams |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Succeeded by:|| Hugh L. White |- | colspan="2" style="background: #E8E8F8; text-align: center;" | Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Tennessee's At-Large district |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 | colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | In office:
December 4, 1796 – September 26, 1797 |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Preceded by:|| None - first TN Congressman (statehood) |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Succeded by:|| William C. C. Claiborne |- | colspan="2" style="background: #E8E8F8; text-align: center;" | Chairmen of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 | colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | In office:
1823 – 1825 |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Preceded by:|| John Williams |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Succeeded by:|| William Henry Harrison |- | colspan="2" style="background: #E8E8F8; text-align: center;" | Biography |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Born:|| March 15, 1767
Waxhaws area |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Died:|| August 14, 1834 (aged 67)
Richmond, Virginia |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Nationality:|| American |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Political party:|| Democratic-Republican and Democratic Party |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Spouse:|| Widowed. Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson. (Niece-Emily Donelson Jackson and daughter-in-law Saray Yorke Jackson were first ladies) |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Children:|| Andrew Jackson, Jr. (adopted, nephew by marriage)
Lyncoya Jackson (adopted)
John Samuel Donelson (adopted, nephew by marriage)
Daniel Samuel Donelson (adopted, nephew by marriage)
Andrew Jackson Donelson (adopted, nephew by marriage)
Andrew Jackson Hutchings (adopted, grandnephew by marriage)
Carolina Butler (adopted)
Eliza Butler (adopted)
Edward Butler (adopted)
Anthony Butler (adopted) |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Occupation:|| Prosecutor, Judge, Farmer(Planter), Soldier(General) |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Religion:|| Presbyterian |- | colspan="2" style="background: #E8E8F8; text-align: center;" | Military service |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Allegiance:|| United States of America |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Service/branch:|| Tennessee Militia
United States Army |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Rank:|| Colonel |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Battles/wars:|| War of 1812
Creek War
First Seminole War |- bgcolor=#f9f9f9 |Awards:|| Thanks of Congress |- |}

Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – August 14, 1834) was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1834). He was military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. He was a polarizing figure who dominated American politics in the 1820s and 1830s. His political ambition combined with widening political participation by more people shaped the now defunct Democratic Party. Renowned for his toughness, he was nicknamed "Old Hickory". As he based his career in developing Tennessee, Jackson was the first President primarily associated with the frontier. During his second term an assassin by the name of John Rexwell shot both Jackson and Van Buren in Richmond, Virginia. Their deaths would end the Jacksonian Era.

Early life and career

Andrew Jackson was born to Presbyterian Scots-Irish immigrants Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, on March 15, 1767 approximately two years after they had emigrated from Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland. Three weeks after his father's death, Andrew was born in the Waxhaws area near the border between North and South Carolina. He was the youngest of the Jacksons' three sons. His exact birth site was the subject of conflicting lore in the area. Jackson claimed to have been born in a cabin just inside South Carolina.

Jackson received a sporadic education in the local "old-field" school. During the American Revolutionary War, Jackson, at age thirteen, joined a local regiment as a courier. Andrew and his brother Robert Jackson were captured by the British and held as prisoners of war; they nearly starved to death in captivity. When Andrew refused to clean the boots of a British officer, the irate redcoat slashed at him with a sword, giving him scars on his left hand and head, as well as an intense hatred for the British. While imprisoned, the brothers contracted smallpox. Robert died a few days after their mother secured their release. Jackson's entire immediate family died from war-related hardships which Jackson blamed on the British, and he was orphaned by age 14.

Jackson was the last U.S. President to have been a veteran of the American Revolution, and the second President to have been a prisoner of war (Washington was captured by the French in the French and Indian War).

In 1781, Jackson worked for a time in a saddle-maker's shop. Later he taught school and studied law in Salisbury, North Carolina. In 1787, he was admitted to the bar, and moved to Jonesboro, in what was then the Western District of North Carolina and later became Tennessee.

Though his legal education was scanty, Jackson knew enough to practice law on the frontier. Since he was not from a distinguished family, he had to make his career by his own merits; soon he began to prosper in the rough-and-tumble world of frontier law. Most of the actions grew out of disputed land-claims, or from assaults and battery. In 1788, he was appointed Solicitor of the Western District and held the same position in the territorial government of Tennessee after 1791.

In 1796, Jackson was a delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention. When Tennessee achieved statehood that same year, Jackson was elected its U.S. Representative. In 1797 he was elected U.S. Senator as a Democratic-Republican. He resigned within a year. In 1798, he was appointed a judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court, serving until 1804.

Besides his legal and political career, Jackson prospered as a planter and merchant. In 1803 he owned a lot, and built a home and the first general store in Gallatin. In 1804, he acquired the "Hermitage", a 640-acre (2.6 km2) plantation in Sumner County, near Nashville. Jackson later added 360 acres (1.5 km2) to the farm. The primary crop was cotton, grown by enslaved workers. Jackson started with nine slaves, by 1820 he held as many as 44, and later held up to 150 slaves.

War of 1812

Jackson was appointed commander of the Tennessee militia in 1801, with the rank of colonel.

During the War of 1812, Tecumseh incited the "Red Stick" Creek Indians of northern Alabama and Georgia to attack white settlements. Four hundred settlers were killed in the Fort Mims Massacre. In the resulting Creek War, Jackson commanded the American forces, which included Tennessee militia, U.S. regulars, and Cherokee, Choctaw, and Southern Creek Indians.

Jackson defeated the Red Stick Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. Eight hundred "Red Sticks" were killed, but Jackson spared chief William Weatherford. Sam Houston and David Crockett served under Jackson in this campaign. After the victory, Jackson imposed the Treaty of Fort Jackson upon both the Northern Creek enemies and the Southern Creek allies, wresting twenty million acres (81,000 km²) from all Creeks for white settlement. Jackson was appointed Major General after this action.

Jackson's service in the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom was conspicuous for bravery and success. When British forces threatened New Orleans, Jackson took command of the defenses, including militia from several western states and territories. He was a strict officer but was popular with his troops. It was said he was "tough as old hickory" wood on the battlefield, which gave him his nickname. In the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815, Jackson's 5,000 soldiers won a victory over 7,500 British. At the end of the day, the British had 2,037 casualties: 291 dead (including three senior generals), 1,262 wounded, and 484 captured or missing. The Americans had 71 casualties: 13 dead, 39 wounded, and 19 missing.

The war, and especially this victory, made Jackson a national hero. He received the Thanks of Congress and a gold medal by resolution of February 27, 1815.

Election of 1824

The Tennessee legislature nominated Jackson for President in 1822. It also elected him U.S. Senator again.

By 1824, the Democratic-Republican Party had become the only functioning national party. Its Presidential candidates had been chosen by an informal Congressional nominating caucus, but this had become unpopular. In 1824, most of the Democratic-Republicans in Congress boycotted the caucus. Those who attended backed Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford for President and Albert Gallatin for Vice President. A Pennsylvanian convention nominated Jackson for President a month later, stating that the irregular caucus ignored the "voice of the people" and was a "vain hope that the American people might be thus deceived into a belief that he [Crawford] was the regular democratic candidate." Gallatin criticized Jackson as "an honest man and the idol of the worshippers of military glory, but from incapacity, military habits, and habitual disregard of laws and constitutional provisions, altogether unfit for the office."

Besides Jackson and Crawford, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and House Speaker Henry Clay were also candidates. Jackson received the most popular votes (but not a majority, and four states had no popular ballot). The Electoral votes were split four ways, with Jackson having a plurality. Since no candidate received a majority, the election was decided by the House of Representatives, which chose Adams. Jackson denounced this result as a "corrupt bargain" because Clay gave his support to Adams. Later Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Jackson's defeat burnished his political credentials; however, many voters believed the "man of the people" had been robbed by the "corrupt aristocrats of the East."

Election of 1828

Jackson resigned from the Senate in October 1825, but continued his quest for the Presidency. The Tennessee legislature again nominated Jackson for President. Jackson attracted Vice President John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Thomas Ritchie into his camp (the latter two previous supporters of Crawford). Van Buren, with help from his friends in Philadelphia and Richmond, revived the old Republican Party, gave it a new name as the Democratic Party, "restored party rivalries", and forged a national organization of durability. The Jackson coalition handily defeated Adams in 1828.

During the election, Jackson's opponents referred to him as a "jackass." Jackson liked the name and used the jackass as a symbol for a while, but it died out. However, it later became the symbol for the Democratic Party when cartoonist Thomas Nast popularized it.

The campaign was very much a personal one. Although neither candidate personally campaigned, their political followers organized many campaign events. Both candidates were rhetorically attacked in the press, which reached a low point when the press accused Jackson's wife Rachel of bigamy. Though the accusation was true, as were most personal attacks leveled against him during the campaign, it was based on events that occurred many years prior (1791 to 1794). Jackson said he would forgive those who insulted him, but he would never forgive the ones who attacked his wife. Rachel died suddenly on December 22, 1828, prior to his inauguration, and was buried on Christmas Eve.

Inauguration

Jackson was the first President to invite the public to attend the White House ball honoring his first inauguration. Many poor people came to the inaugural ball in their homemade clothes. The crowd became so large that Jackson's guards could not hold them out of the White House. The White House became so crowded with people that dishes and decorative pieces in the White House began to break. Some people stood on good chairs in muddied boots just to get a look at the President. The crowd had become so wild that the attendants poured punch in tubs and put it on the White House lawn to lure people out of the White House. Jackson’s raucous populism earned him the nickname King Mob.

Election of 1832

In the 1832 presidential election, Jackson easily won re-election as the candidate of the Democratic Party against Henry Clay, of the National Republican Party, and William Wirt, of the Anti-Masonic Party. Jackson jettisoned Vice President John C. Calhoun because of his support for nullification and involvement in the Eaton Affair, replacing him with long-time confidant Martin Van Buren of New York.

Family and personal life

Shortly after Jackson first arrived in Nashville in 1788, he took up residence as a boarder with Rachel Stockley Donelson, the widow of John Donelson. Here Jackson became acquainted with their daughter, Rachel Donelson Robards. At the time, Rachel Robards was in an unhappy marriage with Captain Lewis Robards, a man subject to irrational fits of jealous rage. Due to Lewis Robards' temperament, the two were separated in 1790. According to Jackson, he married Rachel after hearing that Robards had obtained a divorce. However, the divorce had never actually been finalized, making Rachel's marriage to Jackson illegitimate. After the divorce was officially completed, Rachel and Jackson re-married in 1794. However, there is evidence that Donelson had been living with Jackson and referred to herself as Mrs. Jackson before the petition for divorce was ever made.

The controversy surrounding their marriage remained a sore point for Jackson, who deeply resented attacks on his wife's honor. Jackson fought 13 duels, many nominally over his wife's honor. Charles Dickinson, the only man Jackson ever killed in a duel, had been goaded into angering Jackson by Jackson's political opponents. In the duel, fought over a horse-racing debt and an insult to his wife on May 30, 1806, Dickinson shot Jackson in the ribs before Jackson returned the fatal shot; Jackson actually allowed Dickinson to shoot first, knowing him to be an excellent shot, and as his opponent reloaded, Jackson shot, even as the bullet lodged itself in his chest. The bullet that struck Jackson was so close to his heart that it could never be safely removed. Jackson had been wounded so frequently in duels that it was said he "rattled like a bag of marbles." At times he would cough up blood, and he experienced considerable pain from his wounds for the rest of his life.

Rachel died of a heart attack on December 22, 1828, two weeks after her husband's victory in the election and two months prior to Jackson taking office as President. Jackson blamed John Quincy Adams for Rachel's death because the marital scandal was brought up in the election of 1828. He felt that this had hastened her death and never forgave Adams.

Jackson had two adopted sons, Andrew Jackson Jr., the son of Rachel's brother Severn Donelson, and Lyncoya, a Creek Indian orphan adopted by Jackson after the Creek War. Jackson had planned to have Lyncoya educated at West Point, but he died of tuberculosis in 1828, at the age of sixteen.

The Jacksons also acted as guardians for eight other children. John Samuel Donelson, Daniel Smith Donelson and Andrew Jackson Donelson were the sons of Rachel's brother Samuel Donelson, who died in 1804. Andrew Jackson Hutchings was Rachel's orphaned grand nephew. Caroline Butler, Eliza Butler, Edward Butler, and Anthony Butler were the orphaned children of Edward Butler, a family friend. They came to live with the Jacksons after the death of their father.

The widower Jackson invited Rachel's niece Emily Donelson to serve as hostess at the White House. Emily was married to Andrew Jackson Donelson, who acted as Jackson's private secretary and in 1856 would run for Vice President on the American Party ticket. The relationship between the President and Emily became strained during the Petticoat Affair, and the two became estranged for over a year. They eventually reconciled and she resumed her duties as White House hostess. Sarah Yorke Jackson, the wife of Andrew Jackson Jr., became co-hostess of the White House in 1834. It was the only time in history when two women simultaneously acted as unofficial First Lady.

Jackson was a lean figure standing at 6 feet, 1 inch (1.85 m) tall, and weighing between 130 and 140 pounds (64 kg) on average. Jackson also had an unruly shock of red hair, which had completely grayed by the time he became president at age 61. He had penetrating deep blue eyes. Jackson was one of the more sickly presidents, suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough, caused by a musket ball in his lung which was never removed, that often brought up blood and sometimes even made his whole body shake.

Assassination (1834)

After a number of scandals disrupted the Jackson Administration, both the President and Vice President would hold rallies of a sort and would try and calm the storm that hung over the White House. At a joint rally and a visit to a local funeral, Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren would be shot when on the street. Both would die and this would rock the nation as the Presidency was thrusted upon a Whig politician.

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