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Anatolian Civil War or Turkish War of Independence

september 1920 - 1922




Armistice of Mudanya
Overthrow of the Ottoman Sultanate
Establishment of the Republic of Turkey
Defeated of Kurdistan (Turkish-Kurdish War 1920-1924)


Flag of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Flag of France France
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) Italy
Hellenic Kingdom Flag 1935 Greece
Flag of the Republic of Ararat Kurdistan (Kurdish Nationalists)

Flag of Turkey Turkish Nationalists and Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1983) Turkish Republic of Pontus
with foreign support of
Flag of the Soviet Union Russian FSR (1921-1922)
Flag of Transcaucasia SFR Transcaucasian FSR (1921-1922)

Casualties and Losses

The Anatolian Civil War or Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: İstiklâl Harbi, literally "Independence War" or Kurtuluş Savaşı, literally "Liberation War"; 1920 – 1922) was fought between the Turkish nationalists and the Allies, namely Greece and Italy on the Western and South and France and Kurdish nationalists on the East. The war started after the country was occupied and partitioned following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in World War I by the Treaty of Lucerne.

The Turkish National Movement (Kuva-yi Milliye) in Anatolia culminated in the formation of a new Grand National Assembly (GNA) by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues.

In 1921 the Agreement of Yerevan (or Treaty of Brotherhood) signed between Turkey, Russian FSR and Transcaucasian FSR, besides establishing the eastern frontier of Turkey and establish friendly relations between the countries; the Treaty stipulated that the term Turkey therein meant the territories included in the National Oath adopted by the Ottoman Parliament on 1919. It also provide for help of arms, military instructors and gold to Turkey.

The Armistice of Mudanya (1922) ended the Franco-Turkish and Greco-Turkish wars (often referred to as the Eastern Front, the Southern Front of the war, respectively). The Armistice, keep the status quo of Lycia, Ionia and Cilicia, allowed the retreat of the forces of France, Greece and Italy and ended of their support to Ottoman forces and Kurdish nationalists. It also ended the demilitarized zone of the Straits.

The Eastern Front (Turkish-Kurdish War 1920-1924), without the support of France collapse in favor of Turkey, dissolving the self proclaimed Kurdistani State.

With the establishment of the Turkish National Movement, the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, and the abolition of the sultanate, the Ottoman era and the Empire came to an end, and with Atatürk's reforms, the Turks created the modern, secular nation-state of Turkey on the political front.