| Aswad Sultanate |
|de facto kingdom|
Allah's Promised Land
|Capital|| Chicago (1934-1960, 1965)
Dearborn (1960-1965, 1987-2009)
|Languages||English, Arabic, Persian|
|Religion|| Nation of Islam|
|Historical era||Civil Rights movement|
|Today part of||The American states of Illinois (northeastern), Indiana (northwestern), Michigan (southern and Dearborn area), southeastern Wisconsin|
The Amirka Sultanate, literally meaning "American sultanate" (Arabic: سلطنة الأمريكية) and originally the Negro Sultanate or Aswad Sultanate meaning "black kingdom" (Arabic: الزنجي السلطنة), was a de facto and unrecognized state that covered the areas of what is now Chicago renamed "Yathrib", Detroit in Michigan renamed to "Medina Detroit" and Milwaukee in Wisconsin, areas where the Nation of Islam had operated and had significant amounts of followers.
It later converted to a non-racial Muslim de-facto sultanate by Malcolm X, its second sultan who introduce Arabic. During his reign, other Muslim languages such as Persian was introduced with the presence of Shia Muslims.
The sultanate's territory was claimed by Nation of Islam leaders Elijah Muhammad and Fard Muhammad, who was the self-proclaimed Messiah of Islam and even Christianity. The Royal Islamic National Army (RINA) was the sultanate's main armed forces, who was later involved in a struggle with the Black Panther Army for Yathrib-Chicago after Black Panther leader Huey P. Newton refused to provide any further aid for who he called "self-proclaimed sultan and his messiah [Fard Muhammad]. In addition, the U.S. Armed Forces was dispatched to Chicago, as RINA was labelled as a terrorist organization.
In the post-Khalil Islam era, the sultanate reached status as a social region rather than a de facto territory. Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan is the current claimant to the sultanate's throne, but his claims have met much rejection.
A coalition consisting of the U.S. Armed Forces, the Illinois National Guard, Illinois State Police and the Chicago City Police later defeated the Royal Islamic National Army, disbanding its members and dissolving the de facto sultanate, resulting in the arresting of its first sultan, Elijah Muhammad.
Malcolm X, once Elijah Muhammad's grand vizier, revived the sultanate in 1952 reclaiming the territories when he joined the Nation of Islam. He later left and converted to Sunni Islam and made a journey to Mecca, Islam's holiest site and changed his name and title to Sultan El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz and introduced traditional Sunni Islam in the de facto sultanate. He also embraced Arab nationalism, whilst still being pround of his African-American heritage and rejecting the black supremacist ideologies introduced by the Nation of Islam.
Malcolm X revived the Royal Islamic National Army, bringing in Arab, Pakistani, Indian Muslim and Iranian members. However, he met with U.S. Army officers and Chicago police officers to confirm his intent in recreating the RINA as an armed, but non-violent group. During his reign, educational Arabic was introduced in the regions claimed by the sultanate. The Persian language was also introducd by Shia members from Iran.
On February 21, 1965, Sultan Maluk El-Shabazz was shot by Nation of Islam members. Talmadge Sayer, the main gunman proclaimed himself as the new sultan, and giving leadership of the Royal Islamic National Army to his fellow gunmen Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson who planned to purge the RINA of non-blacks.
Sultan Sayer led a one-hour reign, before being both arrested and overthrown in a coup by the RINA, leading to another vacancy of the de facto state's leadership. Norman 3X Butler, who changed his name to Muhammad Abdul Aziz moved to the Nation of Islam's mosque in Harlem, and assumed control of the sultanate moving its capital to Harlem in New York. In 1987, Thomas 15X Johnson renounced the Nation of Islam and converted to Sunni Islam where he built a mausoleum for Malcolm X, he changed his name to Khalil Islam and assumed the role as a sultan, which resulted in a power struggle with Abdul Aziz. President Ronald Raegan declared a light state of martial law, knowing that more armed violence would ensue, sending troops to both Chicago and the Harlem neighborhood.
Abdul Aziz eventually renounced his control claims over the sultanate, forming his own de facto state in the Harlem area of New York City, the Aziz Sultanate which shifted the focus to New York City, leading to the ending of martial law in Chicago.