By 500 BP, five varieties of former americanus were recorded: the Rocky Mountains man, the Tundra Man, the Central Andes Man, the Southern Andes Man and the Amazon Man. Differences between them were big and no experiments were carried on to check if they were still the same species. Four of those varieties are presumably extinct today, with the Central Andes man represented by eight known individuals.
Murrayans were skillful seafarers but most of them lost their skills after generations on big continents such as Australia or South America. There is evidence, however, of a continuous trade between Africa and South America up until 2200 BP when the expansion of the Mediterraneans and their bigger ships begun cutting off most African ports.
The Appalachian camel, bigger than the Andean llama, was tamed ca. 6000 BP when Mesoamerican maize reached the Mississippi. These factors gave rise to a big culture in the Mississippi basin. Potatoes had been tamed from 8000 BP, but no big cultures were developed in South America before 5000 BP when maize begun to be available in the Parana Basin.